Exercise (PageIndex{1}) functional value

For the following exercises, evaluate each function at the indicated values.

1) (displaystyle W(x,y)=4x^2+y^2.) Find (displaystyle W(2,−1), W(−3,6).)


Solution:(displaystyle 17,72)

2) (displaystyle W(x,y)=4x^2+y^2). Find (displaystyle W(2+h,3+h).)

3) The volume of a right circular cylinder is calculated by a function of two variables, (displaystyle V(x,y)=πx^2y,) where (displaystyle x) is the radius of the right circular cylinder and (displaystyle y) represents the height of the cylinder. Evaluate (displaystyle V(2,5)) and explain what this means.


Solution:(displaystyle 20π.) This is the volume when the radius is (displaystyle 2) and the height is (displaystyle 5).

4) An oxygen tank is constructed of a right cylinder of height (displaystyle y) and radius (displaystyle x) with two hemispheres of radius (displaystyle x) mounted on the top and bottom of the cylinder. Express the volume of the cylinder as a function of two variables, (displaystyle x) and (displaystyle y), find (displaystyle V(10,2)), and explain what this means.

Exercise (PageIndex{2}) Domain

For the following exercises, find the domain of the function.

1) (displaystyle V(x,y)=4x^2+y^2)


Solution:All points in the (displaystyle xy-plane)

2) (displaystyle f(x,y)=sqrt{x^2+y^2−4})

3) (displaystyle f(x,y)=4ln(y^2−x))


Solution:(displaystyle x

4) (displaystyle g(x,y)=sqrt{16−4x^2−y^2})

5) (displaystyle z(x,y)=y^2−x^2)


Solution:All real ordered pairs in the (displaystyle xy-plane) of the form (displaystyle (a,b))

6) (displaystyle f(x,y)=frac{y+2}{x^2})

Exercise (PageIndex{3}) range

Find the range of the functions.

1) (displaystyle g(x,y)=sqrt{16−4x^2−y^2})


Solution:(displaystyle {z|0≤z≤4 })

2) (displaystyle V(x,y)=4x^2+y^2)

3) (displaystyle z=y^2−x^2)


Solution:The set (displaystyle R).

Exercise (PageIndex{4}) Level Curves

For the following exercises, find the level curves of each function at the indicated value of (displaystyle c) to visualize the given function.

1) (displaystyle z(x,y)=y^2−x^2, c=1)

2) (displaystyle z(x,y)=y^2−x^2, c=4)


Solution:(displaystyle y^2−x^2=4,) a hyperbola

3) (displaystyle g(x,y)=x^2+y^2;c=4,c=9)

4) (displaystyle g(x,y)=4−x−y;c=0,4)


Solution:(displaystyle 4=x+y,) a line; (displaystyle x+y=0,) line through the origin

5) (displaystyle h(x,y)=2x−y;c=0,−2,2)


Solution:(displaystyle 2x−y=0,2x−y=−2,2x−y=2;) three lines

6) (displaystyle f(x,y)=x^2−y;c=1,2)

7) (displaystyle g(x,y)=frac{x}{x+y};c=−1,0,2)


Solution:(displaystyle frac{x}{x+y}=−1,frac{x}{x+y}=0,frac{x}{x+y}=2)

8) (displaystyle g(x,y)=x^3−y;c=−1,0,2)

9) (displaystyle g(x,y)=e^{xy};c=frac{1}{2},3)


Solution:(displaystyle e^{xy}=frac{1}{2},e^{xy}=3)

10) (displaystyle f(x,y)=x^2;c=4,9)

12) (displaystyle f(x,y)=xy−x;c=−2,0,2)


Solution:(displaystyle xy−x=−2,xy−x=0,xy−x=2)

13) (displaystyle h(x,y)=ln(x^2+y^2);c=−1,0,1)

14) (displaystyle g(x,y)=ln(frac{y}{x^2});c=−2,0,2)


Solution:(displaystyle e^{−2}x^2=y,y=x^2,y=e^2x^2)

15) (displaystyle z=f(x,y)=sqrt{x^2+y^2}, c=3)

16) (displaystyle f(x,y)=frac{y+2}{x^2}, c=)any constant


Solution:The level curves are parabolas of the form (displaystyle y=cx^2−2.)

Exercise (PageIndex{5}) Vertical Traces

For the following exercises, find the vertical traces of the functions at the indicated values of (displaystyle x) and (displaystyle y), and plot the traces.

1) (displaystyle z=4−x−y;x=2)

2) (displaystyle f(x,y)=3x+y^3,x=1)


Solution:(displaystyle z=3+y^3,) a curve in the zy-plane with rulings parallel to the (displaystyle x-axis)

3) (displaystyle z=cossqrt{x^2+y^2} x=1)

Exercise (PageIndex{6}) Domain

Find the domain of the following functions.

1) (displaystyle z=sqrt{100−4x^2−25y^2})


Solution:(displaystyle frac{x^2}{25}+frac{y^2}{4}≤1)

2) (displaystyle z=ln(x−y^2))

3) (displaystyle f(x,y,z)=frac{1}{sqrt{36−4x^2−9y^2−z^2}})


Solution:(displaystyle frac{x^2}{9}+frac{y^2}{4}+frac{z^2}{36}<1)

4) (displaystyle f(x,y,z)=sqrt{49−x^2−y^2−z^2})

5) (displaystyle f(x,y,z)=sqrt[3]{16−x^2−y^2−z^2})


Solution:All points in (displaystyle xyz-space)

6) (displaystyle f(x,y)=cossqrt{x^2+y^2})

Exercise (PageIndex{7}) Graph

For the following exercises, plot a graph of the function.

1) (displaystyle z=f(x,y)=sqrt{x^2+y^2})



2) (displaystyle z=x^2+y^2)

3) Use technology to graph (displaystyle z=x^2y.)



Exercise (PageIndex{8}) Level curves

Sketch the following by finding the level curves. Verify the graph using technology.

1) (displaystyle f(x,y)=sqrt{4−x^2−y^2})

2) (displaystyle f(x,y)=2−sqrt{x^2+y^2})


3) (displaystyle z=1+e^{−x^2−y^2})

4) (displaystyle z=cossqrt{x^2+y^2})



5) (displaystyle z=y^2−x^2)

Exercise (PageIndex{9}) Contour lines

1) Describe the contour lines for several values of (displaystyle c) for (displaystyle z=x^2+y^2−2x−2y.)


Solution:The contour lines are circles.

Exercise (PageIndex{10}) level surface

Find the level surface for the functions of three variables and describe it.

1) (displaystyle w(x,y,z)=x−2y+z,c=4)

2) (displaystyle w(x,y,z)=x^2+y^2+z^2,c=9)


Solution:(displaystyle x^2+y^2+z^2=9), a sphere of radius (displaystyle 3)

3) (displaystyle w(x,y,z)=x^2+y^2−z^2,c=−4)

4) (displaystyle w(x,y,z)=x^2+y^2−z^2,c=4)


Solution:(displaystyle x^2+y^2−z^2=4,) a hyperboloid of one sheet

5) (displaystyle w(x,y,z)=9x^2−4y^2+36z^2,c=0)

Exercise (PageIndex{11}) level curve at a given point

For the following exercises, find an equation of the level curve of (displaystyle f) that contains the point (displaystyle P).

1) (displaystyle f(x,y)=1−4x^2−y^2,P(0,1))


Solution:(displaystyle 4x^2+y^2=1,)

2) (displaystyle g(x,y)=y^2arctanx,P(1,2))

3) (displaystyle g(x,y)=e^{xy}(x^2+y^2),P(1,0))


Solution:(displaystyle 1=e^{xy}(x^2+y^2))

Exercise (PageIndex{12}) Applications

1) The strength (displaystyle E) of an electric field at point (displaystyle (x,y,z)) resulting from an infinitely long charged wire lying along the (displaystyle y-axis) is given by (displaystyle E(x,y,z)=k/sqrt{x^2+y^2}), where (displaystyle k) is a positive constant. For simplicity, let (displaystyle k=1) and find the equations of the level surfaces for (displaystyle E=10) and (displaystyle E=100.)

2) A thin plate made of iron is located in the (displaystyle xy-plane.) The temperature (displaystyle T) in degrees Celsius at a point (displaystyle P(x,y)) is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the origin. Express (displaystyle T) as a function of (displaystyle x) and (displaystyle y).


Solution:(displaystyle T(x,y)=frac{k}{x^2+y^2})

3) Refer to the preceding problem. Using the temperature function found there, determine the proportionality constant if the temperature at point (displaystyle P(1,2)) is (displaystyle 50°C.) Use this constant to determine the temperature at point (displaystyle Q(3,4).)

4) Refer to the preceding problem. Find the level curves for (displaystyle T=40°C) and (displaystyle T=100°C,) and describe what the level curves represent.


Solution:(displaystyle x^2+y^2=frac{k}{40}, x^2+y^2=frac{k}{100}). The level curves represent circles of radii (displaystyle sqrt{10k}/20) and (displaystyle sqrt{k}/10)

6.1E: Mixed Melting Points

  • Contributed by Lisa Nichols
  • Professor (Chemistry) at Butte College

As previously discussed, there are a large number of compounds that have coincidentally identical melting points. Therefore, caution should be used in identifying a compound based solely on matching the literature melting point. However, mixed melting points offer an ability to almost certainly identify an unknown compound.

Imagine that the nitration of benzaldehyde (Figure 6.17), produces a solid that is determined to have a melting point of (54)-(57^ ext ext). This solid would be assumed to be 3-nitrobenzaldehyde due to the proximity of the experimental melting point to the literature melting point.

Figure 6.17: Nitration of benzaldehyde. The melting point data is from the Aldrich Chemical Catalog.

Although the product likely is as identified, if a pure sample of 3-nitrobenzaldehyde is available, there is a possibility of more strongly identifying the product. A mixed melting point can be taken, by measuring the melting point of a sample composed of roughly equal volumes of the unknown product and of known 3-nitrobenzaldehyde (ground together well with a mortar and pestle, as in Figure 6.18a). If the product is indeed 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, then this "mixture" would not be a mixture at all. Its melting point would be sharp and around the literature range of (55)-(58^ ext ext). If this result occurs, the two samples are almost certainly the same compound. If the product however is not 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, then this "mixture" would truly be very impure ((50\%) of each component), and the resulting melting point would have a much lowered and broadened range.

Figure 6.18: a) Mortar and pestle in front of sample, b) A student prepares a sample for a mixed melting point.

There are no new features in this release.

  • Support for –B Domain—The FCC (USA) rule making on 5 GHz released on April 1, 2014 (FCC 14-30 Report and Order) goes into effect for products that are sold or shipped on or after June 2, 2016. Cisco APs and Cisco WLCs will comply with the new rules by supporting the new regulatory domain (– for the US and will create new AP SKUs that are certified under the new rules. Examples of new rules include new 5-GHz band channels permitted for outdoor use, and transmission (Tx) power level increased to 1W for indoor, outdoor, and point-to-point transmissions.

Note Cisco APs and Cisco WLCs that are in the –A domain category can continue to operate and even coexist with –B domain devices without any issues.

We recommend that you upgrade Cisco APs and Cisco WLCs to the appropriate software release that supports –B domain.

–B Domain Compliant Cisco APs starting with Cisco IOS XE Release 3.6.5E are: Cisco Aironet 700, 700W, 1040, 1140, 1260, 1530, 1570, 1600, 1700, 2600, 2700, 3500, 3600, 3700.

Spectrasonics Omnisphere 2 Software Update v2.6.1e

May 08 2019 | WiN 38 MB | OSX 74 MB
Omnisphere® is the flagship synthesizer of Spectrasonics - an instrument of extraordinary power and versatility. Top Artists all over the world rely on Omnisphere as an essential source of sonic inspiration. This award-winning software brings many different types of synthesis together into one amazing-sounding instrument that will spark a lifetime of exploration.

Omnisphere 2 Software 2.6.1e 5-6-19

Includes the following features and fixes:

Fixes issue with ProVerb pre-delay parameter restoring incorrectly in some DAW projects

New Auto-Play feature enhancements:
- Adds Auto-Play On/Off menu to all Browsers, located next to the Audition button.
- When Auto-Play is On: the Audition play button now appears Blue with a Blue outline
- When Auto-Play is Off: the Audition play button appears White with no outline
- Auto-Play will default to On the first time that you run v2.6.1e. (You can turn Auto-Play Off and it will be saved as a user preference)
Enhancement: Arpeggiator is automatically disabled after user drags MIDI clip from Arp Capture action
Enhancement: In envelope editor, breakpoint editing of looped envelopes does not alter loop length
Enable mouse-wheel scrolling on mod target Bias Point note menu
Fixes sample rate issues in Smoke Amp, Valve Radio and Radio Delay effects
Adds up/down stepper arrows to Filter preset menu on Layer Page
Fixes issue where existing projects or MIDI learn templates that had learnings for Glide duration parameter would not load those learnings properly
Fixes issue where come Hardware Profiles profiles where not enabling SysEx when loading DAW project w/ HW profile
Fixes issue in Mod Matrix Zoom where the on/off checkmark on the "Apply to All Layers" target menu choice was not working
Fixes issue where in Hardware Profiles the "Do you need help?" popup was not working properly certain models
Arpeggiator: Fixes issue where "Init Arp" menu action was not working
Arpeggiator: Fixes issue with knob graphics on some macOS systems
Arpeggiator: Fixes bug where long tied notes in sequence can stop mid-note
Arpeggiator: Fixes note playback issues after host tempo changes
Arpeggiator: Fixes note playback issues when modulating Arp Speed parameter
Arpeggiator: Prevent arp from interfering with pitch bend unnecessarily
Arpeggiator: Fixes handling of tied steps when adjusting Span parameter
Arpeggiator: Fixes issue where captured MIDI file drag-and-drop would break in FL Studio
Arpeggiator: Fixes issue where notes could get stuck on due to missing Note Off events
Fixes crash in REAPER DAW when loading projects with multiple plugin instances
Fixes Imager effect: "Gain" knob text param display is not correct sometimes
Fixes issue where the Bias mod source wouldn’t incorporate Main page octave offsets
Fixes "Osc Type" tag sometimes not set to correct value for patches saved in v2.5 or 2.6

Install Order:
1. Omnisphere Soundsource Library Update v2.6.0c
2. Omnisphere Patch Library Update v2.6.0c
3. Omnisphere Software Update v2.6.0e

Genesis Annouces New 6.1e Loudspeaker System

Seattle, WA — Genesis Advanced Technologies, manufacturer of legendary audiophile loudspeaker systems, announces the debut of the new Genesis 6.1e loudspeaker system. The G6.1e is an Absolute Fidelity two-channel speaker system, and is the latest addition to the Genesis Absolute Surround music and cinema systems. At a recommended retail price of $6,000 per pair, the G6.1e is a breakthrough in affordability for Genesis loudspeakers.

“We’re a market-driven company. We’ve seen our dealers and customers use our G6.1c center channel speakers as left & right pairs for two-channel stereo applications when the full G6.1 was just too much speaker for the given application”, explained Managing Director, Mr. Gary Leonard Koh. “We felt that we could offer a loudspeaker that was better suited to systems smaller in size and budget, while offering the same technical complement and performance of it’s larger stablemate. At the same time, the G6.1e is perfectly able as rear or surround speakers in an Absolute Surround system for multi-channel music or home theater.”

The G6.1e utilizes the legendary Genesis ribbon tweeters – with flat response beyond 36kHz, the exclusive 5″ solid titanium-cone midrange and aluminum mid-bass couplers, in a dipole speaker design. “Through LC tuning, we’ve been able to achieve a frequency response of 48Hz to 36kHz”, stated Arnie Nudell, Genesis Chief Scientist. “That’s pretty remarkable performance for a speaker of this size, at this price point, and adding a Genesis Servo Sub woofer will extend performance right down into the infra-sonic range — 16Hz or better.”

Surround music and home cinema customers will benefit from the G6.1e’s form-factor and performance too. “We strongly believe that surround applications deserve audiophile quality, so we’ve used the exact same components used in our high-end two-channel systems”, explained Scott Garside, Genesis Market Manager. “The G6.1e, in addition to being our lowest-cost, dedicated stereo pair, is equally suited to the roles of stereo pair or surrounds in one of our Absolute Surround systems. It’s the ‘junior’ to our active servo-bass G6.1’s. It offers the same performance, the same “voice”, as our other surround components, and does so at a price that will allow more customers to benefit from the performance level we can deliver.”

“We think of the G6.1e as a building block in configuring your own playback system”, added Koh. “The G6.1e offers a cost effective entry into audiophile performance as a stereo pair, and can then be supplemented with our Servo Sub woofers, or moved to take on surround duties as your Genesis absolute surround system takes shape.”

The G6.1e loudspeaker system retails for $6,000 per pair in standard finish, and will be available through authorized Genesis dealers and distributors worldwide. Complete specifications for the G6.1e loudspeaker system can be found at

Genesis will be exhibiting at Alexis Park – AP2301, at CES 2005,
Las Vegas, NV – Jan 6 — 9, 2005.

About Genesis Advanced Technologies
Genesis Advanced Technologies is a leading developer of high-end audiophile loudspeaker systems. Founded by the developer of the legendary Infinity IRS speaker system, Mr. Arnie Nudell, Genesis is now a worldwide manufacturing and sales organization with a commitment to absolute fidelity, in product service and performance.

Absolute Surround is a registered trademark of Genesis Advanced Technologies Pte Ltd in the United States and other countries.

English Language Arts Standards » Language » Language Progressive Skills

The following skills, marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1-3, are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking.

Standard Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9-10 Grade 11-12
L.3.1f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
L.3.a. Choose words and phrases for effect.
L.3.3a. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
L.4.1g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to/too/two there/their).
L.4.3a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely. 1
L.4.3b. Choose punctuation for effect.
L.5.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
L.5.2a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series. 2
L.6.1c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
L.6.1d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
L.6.1e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
L.6.2a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
L.6.3a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. 3
L.6.3b. Maintain consistency in style and tone.
L.7.1c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
L.7.3a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.
L.8.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
L.9-10.1a. Use parallel structure.

Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects | 6-12

2010 Georgia Code TITLE 19 - DOMESTIC RELATIONS CHAPTER 6 - ALIMONY AND CHILD SUPPORT ARTICLE 1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS § 19-6-1 - Alimony defined when authorized how determined lien on estate of party dying prior to order certain changes in parties' assets prohibited pending determination

(a) Alimony is an allowance out of one party's estate, made for the support of the other party when living separately. It is either temporary or permanent.

(b) A party shall not be entitled to alimony if it is established by a preponderance of the evidence that the separation between the parties was caused by that party's adultery or desertion. In all cases in which alimony is sought, the court shall receive evidence of the factual cause of the separation even though one or both of the parties may also seek a divorce, regardless of the grounds upon which a divorce is sought or granted by the court.

(c) In all other cases in which alimony is sought, alimony is authorized, but is not required, to be awarded to either party in accordance with the needs of the party and the ability of the other party to pay. In determining whether or not to grant alimony, the court shall consider evidence of the conduct of each party toward the other.

(d) Should either party die prior to the court's order on the issue of alimony, any rights of the other party to alimony shall survive and be a lien upon the estate of the deceased party.

(e) Pending final determination by the court of the right of either party to alimony, neither party shall make any substantial change in the assets of the party's estate except in the course of ordinary business affairs and except for bona fide transfers for value.

Disclaimer: These codes may not be the most recent version. Georgia may have more current or accurate information. We make no warranties or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the information contained on this site or the information linked to on the state site. Please check official sources.

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Space Attributes

All parking structures—whether basement, structured, or surface—must provide for the safe and efficient passage of automobiles as well as visitors to and from their vehicles. Therefore, attention should be given to maximizing visibility for vehicles entering parking lanes and individual spaces, circulating within the parking lot, and entering and exiting the parking area. Typical features of outside surface parking space types include the list of applicable design objectives elements as outlined below. For a complete list and definitions of the design objectives within the context of whole building design, click on the titles below.


  • Parking Spaces and Entrances: Accessible parking spaces must be provided for each parking lot associated with the building and calculated separately. At least one of every 6 accessible spaces, or fraction of 6, in each parking facility must be sized to accommodate vans. Accessible spaces must be dispersed among accessible entrances and be located on the shortest route to the entrances that they serve. (There are variations to the rules depending on the building type. See the U.S. Access Board for more information.)
  • Finishes: Incorporate slip-resistant finishes to meet accessibility requirements.
  • Signage: The international symbol of accessibility must be placed in front of the parking spaces mounted at least five feet above the ground, measured to the bottom of the sign. Van accessible spaces include the designation "van accessible".

Left: In some cases, achieving the shortest accessible route will require locating accessible spaces closest to an entrance ramp instead of the entrance doors. Right: Accessible parking sign that includes the International Symbol of Accessibility.
Images courtesy of the US Access Board.


  • Visual Impact: The surface parking lot should not dominate the building site. Through a combination of planning, architectural, and landscaping elements, the visual impact on the surrounding streets and developments can be minimized or enhanced. For example, surface parking is generally located to the rear or side of the building and away from the street or street intersections, while providing direct pedestrian access to the buildings. Note that textures, patterns, and colors are encouraged in the design of surface parking in order to provide breaks in large monolithic areas of pavement and distinguish between pedestrian and vehicular movement within the parking area.


  • Life Cycle Analysis: Incorporate materials, products, and systems that meet long-term life-cycle performance goals to reduce operations and maintenance costs.
  • Maintenance: Care and maintenance of the parking lot should be part of the plan to keep the aesthetic value and prolong its service life.
  • Plan for Additional Uses: Consider renting out unused parking spaces to nearby tenants to share costs and also generate additional revenue. Consider developing near mass transit if building a new lot or even renovating an existing lot to save costs and promote alternative forms of transportation.

Johnson Controls Incorporated (JCI) in Glendale, Wisconsin earned a LEED Platinum rating from the U.S. Green Building Council on four buildings—the largest number of buildings on one campus to achieve Platinum. JCI installed 285 energy-saving luminaires, which also contributes to lowering operating costs.

Functional / Operational

  • Structural Requirements: Typically, surface parking consists of 6" slabs on grade, 4000 PSI, poured on top of a gravel base on compacted fill with a moisture barrier in between the gravel base and the slab. The slab is reinforced with welded wire fabric the joints and wall junctures are sealed with sealant and the surface is broom-finished. The light-colored concrete reflects the sun's heat and minimizes the urban heat island effect.
  • Space Allocation: An average lot requires three to six times more square feet than the actual dimension of a car to accommodate drive aisles, ramps, and standard parking space dimensions. Land costs continue to rise, while the availability of space is becoming scarce. Consider incorporating lift technology or automated parking systems where land and space are at a premium. This can reduce the amount of needed square feet as well as save on construction costs and overall operating costs.
  • Signage and Wayfinding: Signage should indicate all major internal pedestrian access points as well as external major roads and buildings. In surface parking lots, pavement markings are reflective paint and traffic control signage is usually reflective metal with minimum 5" high letters. The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways (ANSI D 6.1e) provides guidance on pavement marking and signage.
  • Parking Management: Curb-mounted parking booths with transaction windows and deal trays are installed at vehicular entrances/exits to manage entering and exiting vehicles. A cooling system, like a packaged terminal air conditioner (PTAC), is usually incorporated to supply the booth with outside air at a positive pressure relative to surrounding parking areas. Additionally, consider implementing electronic entry and exit machines, making it easier for users to self-park and pay. This is an excellent way to track garage traffic user patterns and manage money more effectively and safely.

Secure / Safe

  • Exterior Security Protection: Surface parking is located such that unsecured parking areas are visible from adjacent buildings and safely illuminated. CCTV cameras and parking booths can provide added security by including site surveillance and limiting vehicular access control. See also WBDG Secure/Safe—Security for Building Occupants and Assets.
  • Lighting: Lighting is used to provide security and access within the parking area at night. The lighting design should prevent off-site lighting and night sky pollution. Meeting or providing lower light levels and uniformity ratios than those recommended by the Illuminating Engineering Society are recommended. Strategies include: parking lot light fixtures that use fixture cutoffs and/or are optically controlled for light spillover and glare beyond the boundary of the development and outdoor fixtures that are oriented and shielded to prevent direct illumination above the horizontal surface passing through the fixture. Outdoor lighting should be energy efficient, metal halide/high pressure sodium/or similar sources.


  • Site Improvements: Typical site improvements directly related to the surface parking include ground cover and planting, storm water handling systems, vehicle parking surfaces and roadways, sidewalks directly abutting parking areas, lighting within the parking area, signage, and fences and screens around the parking and buffer zones between parking and public areas.
  • Landscaping and Storm Water Management: Landscaping elements such as berms, walls, and indigenous hedges and trees are usually used to screen the periphery of the surface parking lot. Intermediate islands within the surface parking provide opportunities to plant native and/or adapted trees, which can provide shade in pedestrian walkways. Also, low impact development strategies, such as bioretention cells, should be incorporated into the surface parking design to maximize on-site infiltration of storm water. Modern storm water management systems often rely on vegetation to hold the soil, filter contaminants, absorb nutrients, intercept and transpire water, and support healthy and diverse soil biology. Select appropriate native plants for biofilters, bioswales, rain gardens, and other vegetated storm water management systems.
  • Lighting: Incorporate energy efficient lighting and lighting controls into the parking areas, entrances, and exits to improve lighting levels while also reducing energy use.
  • Parking Priorities: Plan for and provide priority parking for hybrid cars and electric vehicles (EV). Also provide EV charging stations to contribute to the adoption of EVs. Many cities are requiring buildings with parking to be EV ready, meaning that wiring and conduits are built into the lot, even if charging stations are not.
  • Construction Materials: Use durable and sustainable materials with a reduced carbon footprint or that are locally procured and/or recyclable. Consider the material life cycle in the decision-making process in order to reduce the production and consumption of new materials.
  • Permeable Paving: To reduce storm water runoff, incorporate permeable paving into the lot. Plan for proper maintenance of the paving as it requires annual cleaning and vacuuming of the surface. Permeable paving is also eligible for LEED® points under the sustainable sites, water efficiency, materials and resources, and innovative design credit categories.
  • Photovoltaics: Incorporate solar panels whenever possible on the lot to support energy loads and provide shading.

Left: Native plants support the biofilters and rain gardens on this parking lot site. Right: The permeable pavers incorporated into this parking lot direct storm water runoff and pollutants below ground to reduce storm water treatment.

Dell Inc.'s headquarters in Round Rock, Texas made its parking lot more energy efficient, with the installation of a 130 KW package of solar trees. The new parking lot also consists of solar charging stations to provide charging points for electric and hybrid vehicles. The entire project also helps the headquarters run many of its operation via the solar power produced while reducing its greenhouse gas emissions.

Example Plans

The following diagram is representative of typical tenant plans.

Example Construction Criteria

For GSA, the unit costs for outdoor surface parking space types are based on the construction quality and design features in the following table . This information is based on GSA's benchmark interpretation and could be different for other owners.

Michigan State University Traditions

Class Rivalry
Class rivalries were nothing to be messed with. Originally unorganized and often violent, the class rivalries were a face-off between the sophomores and the incoming freshmen class. They caused the university a great deal of property damage each year as they swept through campus. Class rivalry posters were put up around campus to intimidate the other class. In 1898, a group of freshmen were caught by sophomores and dunked in the Class of 1893 Fountain. As the school grew, so did the numbers in each class, giving way for rivalries to get out of hand. Eventually, the games were organized with and annual contest, later called the Frosh-Soph Daze. It included canvas pulls, wrestling, football scrambles, capture the flag, sack races, find the garter in the haystack, and of course the traditional tug-of-war across the Red Cedar (just to name a few). The organized games did not mean all the rough-housing was gone, but it gave the rivalry more of a focus. As rules continued to be set, the freshmen's brown caps were mandatory, preps had to wear gray, and smoking was forbidden on campus (another tradition that Spartans used to take pride in). The presidential tree-sighting contest had the two class presidents "out sit" one another in trees by the Union Building, a later addition to class rivalry games. In the early 1900s, "Cap Night" was a ceremony at the end of the year in which freshmen could throw their hats into a large bonfire and seniors (dressed in cap and gown) could toss in their textbooks. This bonfire turned into another Michigan State tradition when it became the annual barbeque to "mark the end of hostilities" (Wolverine, 1920). As the decades continued, class growth again caused the rivalries to adopt new rules. After injuries in 1931, throwing freshmen into the river was reserved for those that refused to wear their caps or smoked on campus, but even those traditions soon faded. The class rivalry eventually became just a one day event. As the school grew more, class rivalry games declined, and we no longer see events such as these outside the fraternities. (The First Hundred Years)

May Morning Sings and Lantern Night
May Morning Sings were a tradition for the ladies at Michigan State. Early in the morning, women gathered at the Beaumont Tower to receive recognition for their leadership and service to the university. Parents were invited and arrived early and bundled up as they watched their daughters honored. The event announced the members of the upcoming Tower Guard and Mortar Board members. Mortar Board was first established in 1933 at MSC, membership was based on scholarship, leadership, and service to campus. Tower Guard was for sophomore women who showed outstanding qualities during their freshman year. They would be "tapped," or initiated into, the honorary societies at the May Morning Sing. In addition to May Morning Sings, Lantern Night saw women in their cap and gowns on a winding path of campus with lanterns. They would pass their lanterns down from class to class. Another opportunity for honorable women to be recognized, the new president of Tower Guard was announced at this ceremony. May Morning Sing is still a practice with the Tower Guard in recent years.

Water Carnival
The Water Carnival was part of the end of the year festivities. Each student group, class, or organization designed a float that went along with that year's theme. During the event, the floats would parade down the Red Cedar River. Professors and instructors would judge the floats and name a winner. The Water Carnival lasted a few nights each year, as dozens of floats went down the Red Cedar. Its largest year had a turn-out of almost fifty floats. The tradition lasted from the 1920s through the 1960s, in which some students are said to have failed courses due to the time spent on these floats. The Water Carnival was presented to spectators by the senior class and everyone from sororities to residence halls each showed pride for the hard work they put into the floats. The tradition was brought back to life in 2005 for the university's 150th anniversary but, though thoughtful, did not match up to the glorious work done in the past.

Junior 500
Established in 1948 by Lambda Chi, the Junior 500 was another group-oriented event to look forward to at Michigan State. Inspired by the Indianapolis 500, teams crafted push carts for the race. The course went around West Circle Drive, a total of 1.1 miles. Beginning as a competition between men's dorms, fraternities, and co-ops, the race grew to include the various living units associated with the university. The event drew national press coverage.

The Junior-Hop or J-Hop was one of many dances put on at the school, but with a very longstanding tradition. First given in 1891 by the class of 1892, the J-Hop tradition was a large part of MSU history, even during war times. This was no informal dance rather attendees dressed up very nicely, paid handsomely for their ticket, and enjoyed a beautifully decorated affair. Held in such places as the Armory, Gymnasium, and Auditorium, it was bound to be an elaborate night. Those that could not afford a ticket could watch from the balconies. This was also the event to crown Miss MSU. The last J-Hop Dance was held in 1964, but alumni have not forgotten this big social event. (See for more information)

Kedzie's Old timers Stick
The "Old Timers" stick is a continuous MSU tradition since 1931. Dr. Frank S. Kedzie donated a coffee wood cane that his father (Robert Kedzie) got during a trip to Mexico. He gave it to the earliest graduate of the university. A graduate from the class of 1867 was given the cane in the first year of the tradition. Today, there is still an event to pass down the cane to the earliest male and female graduates. Though they do not actually receive the cane, they are able to hold it and instead receive an award. (MS First 100 Years, MSU Alumni Association)

Beal Botanical Gardens
The Beal Botanical Gardens are both beautiful and educational. Established by William J. Beal in 1873, they are the oldest continuously operated botanical gardens in the United States. First used as an outdoor lab, Beal wanted students to understand more than just words on a page and instead delve deep into learning. They represent MSU's continuous push for active learning. Old traditions had freshmen males taking their ladies on a stroll through the garden on a nice evening. Always and still used as a place to study, think, or practice music. People often find themselves in the garden for its scenery as the perfect backdrop to a photo-shoot. Today, students, alumni and families visit the gardens. It is not uncommon for a Spartan to go out of their way to walk through the gardens when crossing campus.

College Bell
The College Bell was a very old tradition at the college. Originally in College Hall, and later move to Williams Hall, the bell was the "alarm clock" of the campus. Its sound rang the students out of bed. An easy source for pranks, students would set up the bell so that water would pour on its puller or even steal the clapper so that the schedule on campus was thrown off. During WWI, the bell was donated to a high school. There were no more bells on campus until Beaumont Tower, whose chimes we still hear today.

Farmers' Week
Farmers' Week was a proud tradition held by this agricultural school. Known also as Round-up week, the festivities included live-stock auctions, a grain show, and educational sessions. Farm families came from around the state to learn about the newest advances in agriculture. All programs at the university that were associated with agriculture would present a lecture during the week. This tradition continues today, though with the more modern name of ANR Week.

Co-Eds and Dating
Women at Michigan State also have their own set of traditions. Showering an engaged or newly pinned girl with ice cold water was an unpleasant honor. The act was not official until the co-ed was drenched. Another tradition is kissing in the shadow of Beaumont Tower at midnight. A co-ed was not considered a true co-ed until this tradition was accomplished. Near the Beaumont Tower sat the Class Stone of 1873, now known as "The Rock". Sitting at the bench by The Rock was reserved for engaged or married couples only. And of course, the round table at the Union Grill is meant for men only. However, that did not stop the traditional Union Grill dates. It is not uncommon for couples, still today, to take bread or crackers down to the river and feed the ducks, a tradition unique to our beautiful campus. Curfew led to the traditional "curfew kiss" seen in the iconic Williams Hall Kissing picture. (For more information on "The Rock" and its traditions, please visit:

Old Buckskin
"Old Buckskin" is a tradition that is not heard of much anymore. The name belonged to the cavalry horse of Lt. Baker, who served in the Civil War. Baker could not part with the horse after the war and bought him from the government. He later rode Old Buckskin during the capture of John W. Booth, the assassin of President Lincoln. Old Buckskin lived in Lansing until his death in 1888, when his remains were given to the college to be put on display. He had many homes, and at different times could be found in the old Museum, then Administration, and also the Library. Eventually, the moths got to him and he was taken off display. The tradition for students was to visit Old Buckskin, but when alumni sent their Spartan children to visit the old horse, the hero was nowhere to be found.

International Festival
The annual International Festival began in the mid-1940s. The event was open to the public and showcased the cultures of International students from around the world. Nations would set up booths to display information about their country including traditional dress, art, weavings, pottery, and even glass blowing. Some years included a foreign car exhibit and some screened foreign films. People came from all over the state to watch the folk dances and other performances, all which were part of the festival. One year even had 17,000 attendees. In later years, the school hosted similar events, such as the Global Festival in 1974 with a fashion show and dances.

The "Half-Way" Rock
"Half-Way" Rock can be found today on campus, outside the southwest lawn of the Union Building. Though many students today do not even notice the rock's presence, early Spartans had a special relationship to this marker. Once home to the "half-way" point between campus and Lansing, the "Half-Way" Rock was a meeting and resting point for students making the journey to and from campus. It has been debated exactly how a seed found its way into the crack of the rock, but regardless, a tree sprang up and split the rock down the middle. The resting point became more comfortable as its cherry tree provided some shade. As the city grew, a building was to be erected where the rock sat, so Kedzie (the school historian at the time) decided to save this landmark and brought it to campus &ndash its final resting place &ndash with a plaque to commemorate its special meaning. Only about one-fourth of the original "Half-Way" Rock remains, but its significance has not left MSU.

The Senior Swingout
The bittersweet event of the "Senior Swingout" was one to look forward to as the school year came to a close. The tradition started in 1910 when co-eds were actually pushed on swings outside of Morrill Hall. The following year, they added caps and gowns to the event and eventually there was only one swing present at the event, just to symbolize the original tradition. Instead, seniors would gather outside their college's hall and the band would parade around campus collecting all the colleges as they passed. The walk to Fairchild was the last walk seniors would have all together, with just the students, before graduation that following weekend. It would be the last time their class would be as one before they became individuals who looked back fondly on their time at State. The end of the parade was a time to gather and reminisce on their memories and share a final goodbye to classmates.

Dairy Store
Another marker of MSU's dedication to active learning, the Dairy Store is more than just a tasty treat on campus. Undergraduate and graduate students in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources and College of Natural Science will utilize the Dairy Store to help prepare them for their future. In addition to being a educational tool, the Dairy Store takes pride in our Big Ten name, with flavors that represent other Big Ten Universities. The Dairy Store uses local cows to make their ice cream. There is a common rumor that Dairy Store ice cream cannot be sold off-campus due to its high fat content, but according to the 2013 Red Cedar Log, they are actually trying to expand business throughout the state. Whether you tasted it at a Resident Assistant's event, in The Gallery, or because you received a free scoop at Freshmen Orientation, every Spartan knows Dairy Store ice cream.

The Midnight Scream
Finals exams are no one's favorite college tradition. Michigan State students, however, practice a tradition that helps them to find relief and comradery during these stressful times. As many students are up late hours studying, there is a special study break that comes only during this one week per term. At the stroke of midnight each night of finals week, a person unfamiliar to campus could suffer quiet the fright as echoes of screaming can be heard in every neighborhood. The Midnight Scream is a tradition practiced and loved today. Just do a quick search on the internet to find videos and posts about this odd event. Even though our campus has grown large and many traditions have fallen, the Midnight Scream continues to bring this campus together.

The Wolverine
The Red Cedar Log
Michigan Agricultural College: Campus Life 1900-1925, Stephen Terry
The First Hundred Year, Madison Kuhn
Michigan State University. Information Files. MSU Alumni Association
The State News

Exhibit written by Laura Williams, October 2014
Michigan State University Archives & Historical Collections

Eye Linearity

Because deterministic jitter is predictable when compared to random jitter, you can design your transmitter and receiver to eliminate it. Pre-emphasis is used by the transmitter to mitigate deterministic jitter. With good eye linearity, noise will be linear and can be modeled as a linear function. Eye linearity is an alternative to the RLM measurement and is defined in the following equation. Refer to the Transmitter Linearity (RLM) section for more details. The AVupp, AVmid and AVlow are the averages of the eye amplitudes, not EH6, as shown in the following figure. An ideal PAM4 eye has an eye linearity of 1.

Watch the video: Matematik Tingkatan 5 KSSM Latih Kendiri. ToDo my (October 2021).