Articles

18.4E: Exercises


Practice Makes Perfect

In the following exercises, solve by using the Quadratic Formula.

1. (4 m^{2}+m-3=0)

2. (4 n^{2}-9 n+5=0)

3. (2 p^{2}-7 p+3=0)

4. (3 q^{2}+8 q-3=0)

5. (p^{2}+7 p+12=0)

6. (q^{2}+3 q-18=0)

7. (r^{2}-8 r=33)

8. (t^{2}+13 t=-40)

9. (3 u^{2}+7 u-2=0)

10. (2 p^{2}+8 p+5=0)

11. (2 a^{2}-6 a+3=0)

12. (5 b^{2}+2 b-4=0)

13. (x^{2}+8 x-4=0)

14. (y^{2}+4 y-4=0)

15. (3 y^{2}+5 y-2=0)

16. (6 x^{2}+2 x-20=0)

17. (2 x^{2}+3 x+3=0)

18. (2 x^{2}-x+1=0)

19. (8 x^{2}-6 x+2=0)

20. (8 x^{2}-4 x+1=0)

21. ((v+1)(v-5)-4=0)

22. ((x+1)(x-3)=2)

23. ((y+4)(y-7)=18)

24. ((x+2)(x+6)=21)

25. (dfrac{1}{3} m^{2}+dfrac{1}{12} m=dfrac{1}{4})

26. (dfrac{1}{3} n^{2}+n=-dfrac{1}{2})

27. (dfrac{3}{4} b^{2}+dfrac{1}{2} b=dfrac{3}{8})

28. (dfrac{1}{9} c^{2}+dfrac{2}{3} c=3)

29. (16 c^{2}+24 c+9=0)

30. (25 d^{2}-60 d+36=0)

31. (25 q^{2}+30 q+9=0)

32. (16 y^{2}+8 y+1=0)

Answer

1. (m=-1, m=dfrac{3}{4})

3. (p=dfrac{1}{3}, p=2)

5. (p=-4, p=-3)

7. (r=-3, r=11)

9. (u=dfrac{-7 pm sqrt{73}}{6})

11. (a=dfrac{3 pm sqrt{3}}{2})

13. (x=-4 pm 2 sqrt{5})

15. (y=-dfrac{2}{3}, y=-1)

17. (x=-dfrac{3}{4} pm dfrac{sqrt{15}}{4} i)

19. (x=dfrac{3}{8} pm dfrac{sqrt{7}}{8} i)

21. (v=2 pm 2 sqrt{2})

23. (y=-4, y=7)

25. (m=-1, m=dfrac{3}{4})

27. (b=dfrac{-2 pm sqrt{11}}{6})

29. (c=-dfrac{3}{4})

31. (q=-dfrac{3}{5})

In the following exercises, determine the number of real solutions for each quadratic equation.

    1. (4 x^{2}-5 x+16=0)
    2. (36 y^{2}+36 y+9=0)
    3. (6 m^{2}+3 m-5=0)
    1. (9 v^{2}-15 v+25=0)
    2. (100 w^{2}+60 w+9=0)
    3. (5 c^{2}+7 c-10=0)
    1. (r^{2}+12 r+36=0)
    2. (8 t^{2}-11 t+5=0)
    3. (3 v^{2}-5 v-1=0)
    1. (25 p^{2}+10 p+1=0)
    2. (7 q^{2}-3 q-6=0)
    3. (7 y^{2}+2 y+8=0)
  1. Answer

    33. a. no real solutions b. (1) c. (2)

    35. (1) b. no real solutions c. (2)

In the following exercises, identify the most appropriate method (Factoring, Square Root, or Quadratic Formula) to use to solve each quadratic equation. Do not solve.

    1. (x^{2}-5 x-24=0)
    2. ((y+5)^{2}=12)
    3. (14 m^{2}+3 m=11)
    1. ((8 v+3)^{2}=81)
    2. (w^{2}-9 w-22=0)
    3. (4 n^{2}-10=6)
    1. (6 a^{2}+14=20)
    2. (left(x-dfrac{1}{4} ight)^{2}=dfrac{5}{16})
    3. (y^{2}-2 y=8)
    1. (8 b^{2}+15 b=4)
    2. (dfrac{5}{9} v^{2}-dfrac{2}{3} v=1)
    3. (left(w+dfrac{4}{3} ight)^{2}=dfrac{2}{9})
  1. Answer

    37. Factor b. Square Root c. Quadratic Formula

    39. Quadratic Formula b. Factor

  1. Solve the equation (x^{2}+10 x=120)
    1. by completing the square
    2. using the Quadratic Formula
    3. Which method do you prefer? Why?
  2. Solve the equation (12 y^{2}+23 y=24)
    1. by completing the square
    2. using the Quadratic Formula
    3. Which method do you prefer? Why?
  3. Answer

    41. Answers will vary

Self Check

a. After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

b. What does this checklist tell you about your mastery of this section? What steps will you take to improve?


Chemistry 204: Organic Chemistry

The course builds on and operates under the assumption that students are familiar with the organic content presented in both CHEM 123 (113) and CHEM 203.

Evaluation: Midterms (two) 20%, Final 45%, On-line Quizzes 10%, Laboratory 25%

Content Summary:

1) General concepts: acid/base equilibrium and rationales, organic redox concepts, resonance and its effects on various systems

2) Carbohydrates: illustration of the chemistry of carbonyl reactions covered above. Basic descriptive terms (a, b anomers, D, L configurations, etc.) Fundamental chemistry. Disaccharides.

3) Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution: Preparation of carboxylic acids. Discussion of the interconversion of various acyl derivatives. Hydrolysis, alcoholysis, ammonolysis, reduction, Grignard reagent addition. Mechanistic emphasis.

4) a-Enolate Reactions: condensation reactions (aldol, Claisen – both simple, mixed, and intramolecular variations). Acetoacetic and Malonic ester synthesis. Mechanistic emphasis. Parallels to biochemical processes.

5) Aromaticity: basic introduction as an extension of resonance effects. Hückel Rule and recognition of aromatic systems effects of aromaticity on acidity/basicity benzylic reactivity.

6) Reactions of Benzene and Derivatives: Discussion of electrophilic aromatic substitution. Mechanistic emphasis.

7) Reactions of Amines: nucleophilic and basic properties

8) Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation and Synthesis: Introduction to some modern methods of carbon-carbon bond formation including alkene metathesis (Grubbs) and an example of another catalytically-based process (Heck).

Chem 204 Course Outline

The recommended textbook for this course is:
Organic Chemistry, Fourth Edition, by Brown, Foote and Iverson

Required Material:
OWL (On-line Web-based Learning) Access Card*

Other suggested materials are:
Study Guide and Solutions Manual for BF&IOrganic Chemistry, Fourth Edition
Prentice Hall Special Model Set (or equivalent)

*In addition to the textbook ALL students are required to have registered for the On-line Web-based Learning (OWL) resource. OWL will be used to assist students with the learning process and a portion of their final grade in CHEM 204 will be determined from the results of OWL assignments given throughout the term. A registration kit for OWL is included with all new purchases of the BF&I textbook. Students who have obtained this text (or others) without the OWL resource MUST purchase the OWL registration package from the UBC Bookstore.

Suggested problems are given in conjunction with each textbook chapter. It is recommended that all students do these problems. Some students may prefer to use the textbook problems as preparation for the OWL exercises others may wish to do the suggested problems after having completed the OWL assignments.

CHEM 204 BF&I Outline:

Resonance/Acids and Bases The ideas and concepts covered in Chapters 1 and 4 and the associated additional readings in later chapters are basic to an understanding of the structure and reactivity of organic compounds. Virtually all of this material has been previously presented at some level and you should already be somewhat familiar with it. We will discuss acid/base concepts and resonance ideas in some detail.
Chapter 1 Covalent Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Sections 2, 6 Problems: 15, 16, 17, 50-54
Chapter 4 Acids and Bases Sections: All Problems: 1-3, 6, 7, 11, 12, 16, 23, 26, 31, 34, 38, 41, 42, 44, 46, 47. Also to be read: Chapter 16 (Aldehydes and Ketones) Section 16.9 A Chapter 16 Problems: 9 Chapter 17 (Carboxylic Acids) Section 17.4 Chapter 17 Problems: 2, 3, 25, 26, 28 Chapter 18 (Functional Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids) Section 18.2 Chapter 18 Problems: 2 Chapter 21 (Benzene and the Concept of Aromaticity) Section 21.4 A-C Chapter 21 Problems: 6, 32-38 Chapter 23 (Amines) Section 23.5 Chapter 23 Problems: 6-8. 30.
Chapter 25Carbohydrates Sections: 1-5 (Omit 1D, 3D, 3E) Problems: 1-5, 7-13, 16-23, 24 (a, c, d, f), 25 (a, c, d, f), 26-28, 37, 38 (a-c).
Chapter 17Carboxylic Acids Sections: All (Omit 5B, 7C) Also to be read Chapter 18 Section 18.4E Problems: 1, 4, 6-10, 14, 15, 18 (a, b, d), 19, 20, 22 (a-d), 32 (a-e, g), 34, 35, 38-40.
Chapter 18 Functional Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids Sections: All (Omit 1C on phosphate esters) Problems: 1, 3, 4, 6-8, 10, 11, 14-17, 19, 20, 23, 24, 26-28, 31, 32, 43.
Chapter 19 Enolate Anions and Enamines Sections: 1-4, 6, 7 Also to be read Chapter 16 Section 16.9 and Chapter 17 Section 17.9 Problems: 1-5, 6b, 10-12, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 25, 28, 32-34, 45.
Chapter 21 Benzene and the Concept of Aromaticity Sections: All (Omit 4E, 4F) Problems: 2, 5, 7-9, 11-16, 18, 21a, 25-29, 40, 49 (a-l) , 51, 61.
Chapter 22 Reactions of Benzene and Its Derivatives Sections: 1-2 Problems: 1-5, 7-9, 15-17, 19-21, 27, 38, 41, 49.
Chapter 23 Amines Sections: 1-8 (Omit 23.8 A-D) Also to be read: Chapter 16 Section 16.8 Problems: 1-5, 10, 12, 13, 16-19, 22, 25, 27, 33, 34, 43, 44-46, 54.
Chapter 24 Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation and Synthesis Sections: 1-3, 5 Problems: 1, 2, 4, 10-19, 23, 24.


EFFECTS OF INFLATION

A continuous substantial rise in the general price level is injurious to the community’s social economic interest, in terms of current welfare and future economic development. Inflation affects the consumers’ real disposable personal income and their expenditure pattern because the money value has fallen and lesser goods can be purchased.

 Savings During inflection, the value of fixed deposits, bonds, life insurance policies and money would depreciate in terms of real income. Real income is the purchasing power of that money as measured by the quantity of goods and services that can be purchased with it. Since inflation depreciates the value of fixed deposits, people will save less and invests is non-financial sectors such as houses and land.  Production The general level of prices rises and producers make higher profits. This will lead producers to increase their level of production and investment. Increased production and investment will create more job opportunities and reduce unemployment.  Balance trade Many countries face a deficit balance of trade since imports are greater than exports. This arises when the prices of domestic products increase, as this makes them less attractive to foreigners thereby leading to a reduction in the demand for domestic products. At the same time, imports increase because the imported products are now cheaper than domestic products.

The measure to control inflation is contrary to the measures for unemployment. The government can implement any one or a combination of three policies which are: I) Monetary Policy II) Fiscal Policy III) Direct Policy Expansionary monetary and fiscal policies are practices to control unemployment and contractionary monetary and fiscal policies are used to control inflation.

  1. MONETARY POLICY Consist of controlling the supply of money by the central bank and enforced by using different monetary instruments which are:

a) Open Market Operation-Selling of Securities or Short-Term Bonds The sale of short-term bond or government securities and treasury bills to the public and banking community by public bank. It is to reduces the total amount of cash balances in the public asset portfolio and the sale securities will cause a fall in the price of securities and will reduces the supply of money. b) Raising the Reserves Requirement The central bank raises the reserve requirement to reduce cash resources in commercial banks. Force these commercial banks to restrict lending activities of commercial banks to provide loans will reduce and lead to a decrease in the supply of money. c) Raising the Discount Rate or Bank Rate The central bank monetary policy is directed towards credit squeeze to control inflation. Therefore, the price of borrowing funds from banks for the business community will increase and this will force the banking system to re-examine its lending policies.

d) Raising the Interest Rate

The central bank would persuade commercial banks to increase rates of interest deposit. And people would attract and encourage to save if the rate of interest is high and this will increase the level of savings. e) Selective Credit Control Policy takes the form of issuing directives to commercial and prohibiting from lending against commodities or reduce the total credit limit granted.

  1. FISCAL POLICY This is an important fiscal measure which reduces the inflationary pressure on an economy.

a) Increase in Taxes It will reduce the impact of inflation on the economy and will reduce the disposable income on individuals and consumptions of goods and services also will lead to a fall in prices. b) Decrease in Government Expenditure It will affect aggregate demand if government expenditure reduces and all of the civil servant’s salary will be cut and postpone its development projects to reduce the purchasing power.

3. DIRECT CONTROL MEASURES


OH Cuyahoga County CCP Juvenile Forms

  • OH-CUYA-A JUV Affidavit
  • OH-CUYA-ADCPTSPP JUV Application to Determine Custody/Parenting Time/Shared Parenting Plan/Visitation
  • OH-CUYA-AER JUV Application to Expunge Record
  • OH-CUYA-AI JUV Affidavit of Indigency
  • OH-CUYA-AP JUV Affidavit for Publication
  • OH-CUYA-ASR JUV Application to Seal a Record
  • OH-CUYA-CAA JUV Caretaker Authorization Affidavit
  • OH-CUYA-CAACSOJO JUV Complaint to Adopt the Administrative Child Support Order as a Judicial Order
  • OH-CUYA-CCFPCS JUV Complaint in Contempt for Failure to Pay Child Support
  • OH-CUYA-CIIS JUV Custody Intake Information Sheet
  • OH-CUYA-COA JUV Change of Address
  • OH-CUYA-CPICF JUV Confidential Personal Identifiers Contained in Filing
  • OH-CUYA-CSANPHI JUV Child Support Agreement (No Private Health Insurance)
  • OH-CUYA-CSAWH JUV Child Support Agreement (Private Health Insurance)
  • OH-CUYA-CSCW JUV Child Support Computation Worksheet
  • OH-CUYA-DS JUV Docketing Statement
  • OH-CUYA-FDF JUV Financial Disclosure Form
  • OH-CUYA-FS JUV Fact Sheet
  • OH-CUYA-GPA JUV Grandparent Power of Attorney
  • OH-CUYA-IS JUV Instructions for Service
  • OH-CUYA-ISCISF JUV Instructional Sheet for Completing Instructions for Service Form
  • OH-CUYA-MC JUV Motion for Continuance
  • OH-CUYA-MMCSPPPT JUV Motion for Modify Custody/Shared Parenting Plan/Parenting Time/Visitation
  • OH-CUYA-MOTION JUV Motion
  • OH-CUYA-MTP JUV Motion for Transcripts of the Proceedings
  • OH-CUYA-MWAF JUV Motion for Waiver of Application Fee
  • OH-CUYA-NA JUV Motion of Appeal
  • OH-CUYA-NIR JUV Notice of Intent to Relocate
  • OH-CUYA-OAO JUV Objection to an Administrative Order
  • OH-CUYA-OMD JUV Objections to the Magistrate’s Decision
  • OH-CUYA-PA JUV Poverty Affidavit
  • OH-CUYA-PRAECIPE JUV Praecipe
  • OH-CUYA-RI JUV Request for Information
  • OH-CUYA-RTP JUV Request for Transcript of the Proceedings
  • OH-CUYA-SPP JUV Shared Parenting Plan
  • OH-CUYA-SRIS JUV Sealing and Records Information Sheet
  • OH-CUYA-SUBPOENA JUV Subpoena
  • OH-CUYA-TACRF JUV Transcript/Audio Copy Request Form
  • OH-CUYA-UCCJEA JUV UCCJEA Affidavit
  • OH-CUYA-WL JUV Witness List

Best Wide-Fitting Neutral Road Running Shoes

If you've got a neutral foot-strike (i.e. your feet stay in an upright position when you run or walk) you could try these.

Nike Air Zoom Pegasus 36

Nike&rsquos classic neutral road running shoe, the Pegasus, is currently available in a 4E fit. This enables those with a broader foot to wear this iconic shoe as the standard width is actually on the narrow side. It&rsquos not going to be as broad as other 4E fit shoes, but will comfortably fit anyone who usually wears a 2E in New Balance, Brooks, etc. The cushioning is lightweight and soft. With the great flexibility of this shoe you get a comfortable ride and a nice flow to your running stride.

New Balance 1080

New Balance's cushiest neutral shoe is lightweight, flexible and very shock absorbent. Built on an 8mm drop to promote a more natural, midfoot strike. The men's 1080 comes in a wide (2E) and an extra wide (4E) fitting. The 4E 1080 is the widest of all neutral shoes available, as far as we know. The women's comes in a wide fitting (D). New Balance wide fits are often a little deeper than other wide fits so they give you a bit more space between the insole and the upper creating more volume for your foot.

Men's New Balance 1080v11 2E
Black/White 𧴿.00

Men's New Balance 1080v10 2E
Black/White 𧴡.00 𧴿.00

Men's New Balance 1080v11 4E
Black/White 𧴿.00

Women's New Balance 1080v11 D
Blue/Navy 𧴿.00

Women's New Balance 1080v11 D
Black/White 𧴿.00

Women's New Balance 1080v10 D
Black/White 𧴡.00 𧴿.00

New Balance 880

New Balance 880 is a neutral road running shoe. In comparison with New Balance 1080, 880 is just a bit more flexible with a lighter feel to it, but still very stable and cushioned. The heel drop is 10mm.

Men's New Balance 880v11 2E
Blue/Navy 𧴰.00

Men's New Balance 880v10 2E
Rock 䀋.00 𧴰.00

Men's New Balance 880v10 2E
Red 䀋.00 𧴰.00

Women's New Balance 880v11 D
Grey/Blue 𧴰.00

Women's New Balance 880v10 D
Purple 䀋.00 𧴰.00

Women's New Balance 880v10 D
Blue 䀋.00 𧴰.00

Brooks Ghost

The Brooks Ghost franchise of well cushioned, stable, neutral shoes is tremendously popular. BioMogo DNA cushioning provides consistently soft yet responsive cushioning from heel to forefoot and a stretchy engineered mesh upper shapes itself to the foot&rsquos natural lumps and bumps. Brooks Ghost comes in 2E width for men and a D width for women.

Men's Brooks Ghost 13 2E
Navy/Blue 𧴰.00

Men's Brooks Ghost 13 2E
Black/Lime 𧴰.00

Men's Brooks Ghost 13 4E
Black/Black 𧴰.00

Women's Brooks Ghost 13 D
Black/Pearl 䀏.00 𧴰.00

Women's Brooks Ghost 13 D
Black/Black 䀏.00 𧴰.00

Brooks Glycerin

Glycerin is the ultimate in soft! Brooks top of the range neutral shoe features a DNA Loft midsole which incorporates air and rubber for a supremely comfy and pillowy feeling as you step but still offers all the responsiveness and durability you need from a running shoe. An adaptable double jaquard mesh upper conforms to fit your foot's individual shape. Brooks Glycerin comes in 2E width for men and a D width for women.

Men's Brooks Glycerin 19 2E
Navy/Blue 𧵄.00

Women's Brooks Glycerin 19 D
Ice Blue 𧵄.00

Brooks Dyad

Straight-lasted and solid, the Dyad is a good stable neutral runner with ample shock absorption and a plush, cushioned insole for underfoot comfort. We stock 4E extra wide for men and 2E extra wide for women.

Women's Brooks Dyad 11 2E
Navy/Pink 䀋.00

Hoka Bondi

Hoka One One are known for their exceptionally well padded running shoes with outsized midsoles that almost resemble platform shoes. They are favoured by ultra distance runners, runners with persistent injury problems and those who just love a seriously cushioned feel when running or walking. Many of our customers find the fit of Hoka shoes too narrow for them so we're happy to be able to offer the Bondi - Hoka's loved and trusted ultra cushioned road running shoe for the neutral striker - in a wide width fitting. Bondi's compression moulded EVA midsole is 33mm thick at the heel and 29mm at the forefoot to give you a soft underfoot feeling and plenty of impact absorption with a meta rocker that rocks you from heel to forefoot to facilitate a smooth forward motion.

Men's Hoka One One Bondi 7 Wide
Navy/Black 𧴺.00

Men's Hoka One One Bondi 7 Wide
Turbulence/Chili 𧴺.00

Men's Hoka One One Bondi 7 Extra Wide
Grey 𧴺.00

Women's Hoka One One Bondi 7 Wide
Black/White 𧴺.00

Women's Hoka One One Bondi 7 Wide
Black 𧴺.00

Best Wide-Fitting Anti-Pronation Road Running Shoes

If your feet have a tendency to collapse inwards when running or walking, your leg is being pulled out of the correct position with every step and you&rsquoll need some support on the inside of the shoe to hold the foot upright and prevent injury. So give one of these a go.

Brooks GTS

The Adrenaline GTS is one of the most popular and effective antipronation shoes around. Support features reduce pronation and hold the foot in the optimum position so you can run or walk with confidence. BioMogo DNA cushioning attenuates the shock on landing. A super comfy upper with a midfoot saddle to cradle the foot completes the experience. 2E and 4E for men, D and 2E for women.

Men's Brooks Adrenaline GTS 21 2E
Navy/Red 𧴰.00

Men's Brooks Adrenaline GTS 21 2E
Black/Black 𧴰.00

Men's Brooks Adrenaline GTS 21 4E
Black/Black 𧴰.00

Women's Brooks Adrenaline GTS 21 D
Black/Raspberry 𧴰.00

Women's Brooks Adrenaline GTS 21 D
Black/Black 𧴰.00

Brooks Addiction

Addiction is a straight-lasted and highly supportive training shoe featuring an extended rollbar which is strong enough to correct even heavy overpronation. A comfy upper with a plush padded heel collar and a super cushy insole gives the Addiction a cosy feel for long or short distance running or for wearing everyday if you need to. D width in the women's.

Men's Brooks Addiction 14 2E
Black 𧴜.00

Women's Brooks Addiction 14 2E
Black/Pink 𧴜.00

Asics Kayano

Asics Kayano is the Rolls Royce of running shoes. A Duomax support system works with a stabilising heel counter and trusstic (bridge on the outsole under the middle of the foot) to stop the feet over pronating. Two of Asics' top midsole materials &ndash Flytefoam Lyte and Flytefoam Propel &ndash combine to absorb shock and give you a bouncy and cushioned ride without excess weight. A double layered jacquard mesh upper offers breathability and comfort. Men's 2E.

Men's Asics Gel Kayano 27 2E Wide
Black/Silver 𧵓.00

New Balance 860

A breathable and stretchy engineered mesh upper adapts to the shape of your foot for a comfortable fit. A dual layer midsole featuring softer materials on top and firmer materials underneath offers a cushioned underfoot experience. Structurally sound, a firmer density post on the inside stabilizes pronating feet. In our experience, wide fitting New Balance shoes tend to be a bit broader deeper than their equivalents in other makes so they offer a little more volume than some others. Wide and extra wide for men (2E and 4E.) Wide D width for women.

Men's New Balance 860v11 2E
Blue/Navy 𧴰.00

Men's New Balance 860v11 4E
Grey/Black 𧴰.00

Women's New Balance 860v11 D
Turquoise/Blue 𧴰.00

Women's New Balance 860v11 D
Blue 𧴰.00

Best Wide-Fitting Trail Running Shoes

For years and years there's been a gap in the market for a specifically wide-fitting trail running shoe. Up until now, we've had to make do with the standard width trail running shoes that come up wider than the rest and this can vary from year to year as I've found to my cost. A shoe that fits my wide feet one year will get updated the next year and I can no longer squeeze my horizontally-challenged plates of meat into them. Salomon and Hoka have provided us with a solution.

Salomon Speedcross Wide

Custom built for wide feet, this Speedcross is in its element on soft, wet terrain where its 6mm chevron shaped lugs provide monster grip both up and downhill and on the flat. The wet grip rubber outsole is sticky enough to reduce slippage on wet rocks or pavements. A tough, anti debris mesh upper with a built-in mudguard protect the feet over rugged trails and a moulded EVA midsole cushions the foot when the ground is harder. Super trail running power for wide feet.

Men's Salomon Speedcross 5 Wide
Black 𧴰.00

Women's Salomon Speedcross 5 Wide
Blue/Navy 𧴰.00

Hoka Challenger

Designed for on and off-road running, the Hoka Challenger's trademark thick midsole provides you plenty of lovely cushioning and a 4mm lugged outsole gives you grip on soft wet stuff without being too aggressive for use on flat, road-type surfaces.

Women's Hoka One One Challenger ATR 6 Wide
Black/Coral 𧴫.00

Hoka Speedgoat

In comparison with the Challenger, Hoka Speedgoat has a more durable Vibram Megagrip outsole. Not only does it have deeper lugs but it also offers the 'stepped' lugs feature, which will help you to shake away the mud from your shoes and keep your feet light.

Men's Hoka One One Speedgoat 4 Wide
Blue/Red 𧴵.00

Men's Hoka One One Speedgoat 4 Wide
Navy/Lime 𧴵.00

Women's Hoka One One Speedgoat 4 Wide
Navy/Yellow 𧴵.00

Brooks Cascadia

Cascadia 14 2E is Brooks&rsquo first incarnation of a wide-fitting trail running shoe, offering protection and comfort for wide feet on rocky, muddy or uneven terrain. The built-in rock plate gives extra protection against sharp rocks and stones. The heel drop is 8mm for better connection to the ground. Featuring a velcro gaiter attachment so you&rsquove the option to use gaiters when running on sandy terrain (gaiters are not included).

Men's Brooks Cascadia 15 2E
Black/Lime 𧴰.00

Women's Brooks Cascadia 15 D
Black/Rose 𧴰.00

Nathalie June 25, 2021 at 10:21pm

Hi Nandati,
I wear brooks ariel and brooks adrenaline in size 6, D width. I am a moderate pronator and I prefer shoes with generous cushioning .I am looking to try the Cloudflow styles. Are you able to suggest which one I should go for?

Nandanti Martaskova July 1, 2021 at 11:51am

Thank you for your comment. If you are happy with your Brooks Ariel and Adrenaline and would like to try similar On running shoes I would suggest the On Cloudflyer. On Couldflow is a neutral running shoe, your Ariel and Adrenaline are supportive, that means Clouldflow doesn't feature support to correct your over-pronation. Clouldflyer has built-in support so it is closer to your Brooks shoes. Hope this helps.

Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can do for you. All the best with your running.

Bob hanner May 18, 2021 at 4:56pm
Nandanti Martaskova May 18, 2021 at 5:35pm

Hi Bob, Thank you for your comment. It is impossible to find the wide-fitting minimal running shoes. The shoe companies just don't make them, I know this can be frustrating. In July we are going to get the On Cloudflow in a wide fitting. This is built on a 6mm heel drop and has a responsive feel. This summer is the first time On are introducing wide-fitting running shoes. Hope this helps. Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can help with. Thank you.

Andrew May 4, 2021 at 6:26pm
Nandanti Martaskova May 5, 2021 at 6:42pm
Lee Avery May 1, 2021 at 10:17pm
James April 7, 2021 at 11:52am
Nandanti Martaskova April 7, 2021 at 5:35pm

Hi James, Thank you for your comment. Yes we are going to get the men's and women's On Cloudflow in the wide fitting in July (unless it gets delayed from the On side). This is for the first time On is bringing the wide Cloudflow to the market. I don't know anything about the wide Cloudflash. We are going to get the On Cloudflyer wide in June. Hope this helps. Thank you, Kind Regards Nandanti

Steph English April 4, 2021 at 9:03pm

Just dropping in to say finally there is a resource for sourcing wide fit shoes. I run in speedgoat 4's without the insoles on trail and they are fine. I will be purchasing the Bondi 7 wides from you so I don't wreck the speedgoats on road.

Please please pleeeeeeeeeeze keep this part of your site up - if you do I won't shop anywhere else for the simple reason that redirects always point to standard width shoes!

Nandanti Martaskova April 7, 2021 at 3:29pm

Hi Steph, Thank you for your lovely comment. I am very happy to hear that you find our wide fitting blog post helpful. We have very good responses to our blog posts. The blog posts are our contributions to the running community for those who need our advice. Thank you so much for shopping with us, much appreciated as this supports us and keeps us in business so we can also offer our best to the runners. All the best in your running. Thank you. Kind Regards Nandanti

Kate March 24, 2021 at 10:13pm
Nandanti Martaskova March 26, 2021 at 11:21am

Thank you for your comment. I am sorry to hear that you have difficulties finding running shoes with the right fit for your feet. The design of the Inov-8 shoes is often close to the ground, more minimal. According to my knowledge the shoe companies don't make shoes with thin soles in a wide or extra wide fitting. I know, this is upsetting. From our range I can offer you only women's Dyad 2E, which is padded, not what you really want. Around 8th of July we are going to get women's On CloudFlow in the wide fitting. This a very lightweight, flexible shoe, with a lower heel-drop and firmer/responsive cushioning. At present this shoe is available only in the standard width but the wide fitting is going to be available from July. I think this might suit your needs. Hope this helps. Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can do for you. Thank you.

Heather February 22, 2021 at 3:00pm
Nandanti Martaskova February 23, 2021 at 10:11am

Hi Heather, I am happy to hear that your son has started running. We have a very good selection of wide fitting running shoes. For me it is difficult to advise you on the right type of running shoe for your son without seeing his feet and checking his gait. Our stores are closed now so we offer to our customers online gait analysis to recommend the most comfortable shoes with the right level of support. Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can do for you. Thank you, kind regards, Nandanti

Belinda Johnson February 21, 2021 at 9:56am
Nandanti Martaskova February 22, 2021 at 5:43pm

Hi Belinda, thank you for your comment. It is very difficult for me to advise you on the right type of trainers without seeing your feet. While our stores are closed we are offering to our customers online gait analysis. After checking your gait and seeing the way you run we can recommend the right type of running shoes to you. Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can do for you. Thank you, kind regards, Nandanti

Ro February 10, 2021 at 6:30am
Kozan Ahmet February 7, 2021 at 2:44pm
Nandanti Martaskova February 8, 2021 at 5:11pm

Hi Kozan, thank you for your comment. Running shoes don't exist in a 6E fitting. The shoe companies just don't make them. I know it is a bit upsetting.

The widest neutral running shoes available in a 4E fit are Brooks Ghost or New Balance 1080. If you need support for overpronation there's the Brooks Adrenaline GTS or New Balance 860.

Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can do for you. Thank you, kind regards, Nandanti.

Toni Thouvenel-Avenas November 30, 2020 at 5:35pm
Nandanti Martaskova December 1, 2020 at 11:36am

Hi Toni, Thank you for your comment. The newest 1080 is version 10. It is a little bit different to your version 3. It is more cushioned with a nice rocker feeling to encourage forward movement. The other option would be the New Balance 880. This shoe is more similar to your current 1080 v3 in my opinion.

Regarding your size I would suggest to stick to the same size as you have at present: UK6 in both styles above. You can always try the shoes around the house and if you find out that they are too small we offer a free return policy so you can easily swap them for a bigger size. Please just make sure you have a half finger space between your biggest toe and the end of the shoe. Your toes should not touch the end of the shoe. Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can help with. Thank you.

Janice thomson November 27, 2020 at 2:56pm
Nandanti Martaskova November 30, 2020 at 10:55am

Hi Janice, Thank you for your comment. Brooks discontinued the women's Adrenaline GTS in 2E width, however they have some sizes left in women's Addiction 14 in 2E width. We don't stock this shoe in the 2E width so if you would like to get it from us please let me know what size you need and I will order it for you (if it's in stock). The GTS and Addiction feature support to correct over-pronation &ndash the difference is in the structure of the support. The GTS has built-in Guiderail support and the Addiction features medial post support. Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can do for you. Thank you, Kind Regards Nandanti

James Lloyd November 25, 2020 at 12:29pm

I presently own Mizuno Wave Horizon 4 in a size 11 UK bit with winter now here the tracks are too muddy for road shoes. I want to purchase a wide trail shoe of ultra training for mainly chalk Downland running so wanted some advice on which shoes to look at that also give a good width.

Thanks in advance for your time.

Nandanti Martaskova November 25, 2020 at 3:11pm

Hi James, Thank you for your comment. We used to stock Mizuno Wave Horizon a couple of years back, I do remember this shoe. It is a supportive running shoe to correct the over-pronation with a great level of cushioning. You can see in the post above the selection of our wide fitting trail shoes. All of them are neutral without support. None of the running brands make the wide supportive trail running shoes. They just don't exist. I know it is disappointing. The reason is that on the uneven trail surfaces your feet will move in all directions anyway. It is difficult for me to advise you which one would be the best fit and feel for you, as every shoe is different. The best way to find out would be to try the shoes on. We are going to re-open our London store on the 2nd of December. If it is not possible for you to come to on of our stores you can always order a couple of options from us and try them on around your home. Delivery and returns are free. Please let me know if you have any question or if there is anything else I can do for you. Thank you,

Katie November 10, 2020 at 3:15pm

I’m trying to find a wide fitting middle or long distance running spike shoe for an athlete. They will need to be relatively supportive so potentially a cross country spike Would work. Can you advise as I can’t find width measurements for spikes, just trainers.

Nandanti Martaskova November 11, 2020 at 11:12am

Hi Katie, Thank you for your comment.

The shoe companies don't make track spikes or cross-country spikes in a wide fitting. Track spikes are snug, to hold the athletes' feet securely. Out of all cross-country spikes we stock, Adidas and Nike are a little bit wider than others, but still a standard fit.

Here is the selection of our XC spikes. Hope this helps. Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can do for you.

Thank you,
Kind Regards Nandanti

Tina Griffiths October 21, 2020 at 3:29pm
Nandanti Martaskova October 22, 2020 at 11:35am

Thank you for your comment. You've been using the men's 860 in the wide width for running. I am assuming that it is the 2E width. There is no anti-pronation trail running shoe on the market in the wide 2E fitting at present. Most of the trail shoes are neutral. In the wide fitting I can sugest to you to look at the Brooks Cascadia 15 2E or the Salomon Spedcross 5 wide. To offer your foot support you can always use anti-pronation insoles. The strongest are Superfeet. Please let me know if you have any question or if there is anything else I can do for you.

Jonathan Stuart September 14, 2020 at 12:13pm

I have wide feet and high arches and struggle to find trail running shoes to fit. Most of my running is in Inov-8 Trail Talons shoes and I need size 11 although normal shoes are a size 10. The Trail Talons are great but don't provide enough protection for long runs over stony (flints and small rocks) ground so I'm thinking of trying the Brooks Cascadia or Salomon Speedcross in wide fitting. Would those shoes give more protection than Trail Talons and be suitable for stony ground, and what size would you recommend I try?

Nandanti Martaskova September 14, 2020 at 4:27pm

Hi Jonathan, Thank you for your comment. Brooks Cascadia features a rock plate to protect your feet against sharp rocks and stones. The rock plate is build into the midsole with the cushioning on top, so you will not even be aware of it. Salomon Speedcross doesn't feature a rock plate and is just a bit narrower then the Brooks Cascadia. It is difficult for me to advise you on the size without seeing your feet. I would suggest you stick to UK 11 and in case it doesn't fit we do free returns so you can swap them for a different size. Hope this is helpful. Please let me know if you have any questions or if there is anything else I can do for you. Thank you. Kind regards, Nandanti

DaveP August 19, 2020 at 10:13am

Hi, I have a very specific issue that I think is related to having wide feet and most likely ill fitting trainers.

I use an elliptical most days and I’m plagued by foot numbness. It always starts after about 30-40 mins and is located in my left foot at the forefoot near my big toe.

Nandanti Martaskova August 19, 2020 at 3:48pm

Hi Dave, I am sorry to hear about your foot issues. For me it is difficult to advise you on the right type of shoes for you without seeing your feet and your gait. In our stores we make sure that our customers end up with the right type of running shoes by offering natural gait analysis. Would it be possible for you to come and visit? Otherwise we offer online gait analysis to make sure you get the right type of shoes. I hope that this is helpful. Please let me know if you have any question of if there is anything else I can do for you. Thank you, Kind Regards Nandanti

DaveP August 20, 2020 at 8:57am
Marie December 26, 2020 at 11:53pm
Claire Dumbreck June 17, 2020 at 7:50pm
Nandanti Martaskova June 18, 2020 at 11:34am

New Balance W860SB3 are the supportive shoes for over-pronation. They have a very good support built in. According to my experience some runners still need supportive shoes to wear with their orthotic insoles, while others need just a pair of neutral shoes.

In our stores we make sure customers end up with the right type of shoes by offering natural gait analysis. If it is not convinient to you to come to our store you can do our online gait analysis. When we see you running with your orthotics we will be able to advise you on the right type of running shoes (neutral or supportive). Let me know if you have any questions.

Enjoy your running
Nandanti

James Reina May 30, 2020 at 12:13pm
Nandanti Martaskova June 1, 2020 at 3:41pm

I am sorry to hear that the Challenger you bought is not wide enough. We have the same feedback on all Hoka shoes. Even though they are a wide fit they are not as wide as wide-fitting shoes from other brands. Altra shoes shape their shoes to the foot, which is very much appreciated. I am happy to hear that you like your Altra shoes, thank you for your comment.

All the best with your running.
Nandanti

Laura Turner May 4, 2020 at 4:56pm

Absolutely brilliant article, thank you! I’m absolutely awful when it comes to shoes and I’ve decided I need to get a proper pair of wide fit trainers as my feet are constantly sore.

Nandanti Martaskova May 5, 2020 at 1:42pm

Thank you so much for your lovely comment. I am happy to hear that you like this article. In the stores we do natural gait analysis where we check your feet to make sure you get the right level of support. You can try on a few different shoes from different brands so you end up with the best fit and comfort. We are looking forward to seeing you in the store. All the best with your running.

Ahmed Khalil December 7, 2019 at 4:19am
Nandanti Martaskova December 7, 2019 at 4:36pm

Thank you for your comment, I am glad that you like this blogpost.

Regarding your question, yes you can use running shoes for your training (in running) and racing as well. Some runners have a pair of running shoes for running training only and a different pair of running shoes for the racing. I would not advise you to use running shoes for training in other sports such as football or tennis or voleyball etc. Running shoes are designed for forward movement only, not for side-to-side movment. If you use them for any other sport, they will not last as long.

Good luck with your running.
Kind Regards
Nandanti

Mike Edwards November 15, 2019 at 12:22pm
Evelyn Romero November 15, 2019 at 1:00pm

Thanks for contacting us. As for your question, I'm afraid we can't help you this time. We don't have in stock any shoe that meets all these requirements. As you can see, we have wide shoes but only one of them is waterproof (not wide). We are not aware of any of our suppliers doing such a thing.

Christopher J April 29, 2019 at 1:08pm
Nandanti Martaskova April 29, 2019 at 5:20pm

It is a bit difficult to advise what shoe would be the best fit for your feet without seeing them.

I would suggest that you try the Brooks Ghost 11 in the 2E width (wide width) or Brooks Adrenaline GTS 19 2E or 4E width. This season Brooks shoes fit better on the top of the foot (bridge of foot) as some of our customers find the New Balance shoes a bit tighter in this place. Of course it depends on the foot shape. Brooks Adrenaline GTS 19 is a supportive shoe. The support in the GTS 19 is the &lsquoguide rail' type which is a reinforcement of the heel counter and not the usual medial blog post in the midsole. This is the reason it could be worn by a neutral runner or walker as well.

We have a very convenient free returns policy. You can buy a couple of pairs of shoes from us in different sizes. With the free delivery option you will receive a free returns sticker that you can attach to the unwanted parcel going back to us and drop at the post office. We will refund you when we receive the shoes back from you.

Georgie April 20, 2019 at 11:23am

This is a really helpful article thank you!

I am looking for a running shoe with a wide toe box (bunions!) but am looking for a more minimal style one as I find having any kind of heel causes bunion pain.

Nandanti Martaskova April 20, 2019 at 5:13pm

Hi Georgie,
Thank you for your email.

There is less choice regarding wide fitting minimal road shoes.

One option would be to go for the Hoka Bondi 6. They have a 4mm heel drop with lots of cushioning.

If you prefer to have a 'closer the ground' feel there is an option to go for an Altra shoe. The Altra shoes are shaped to the foot shape. They don't make them in the a wide width but their toe box is rounded and in most cases they fit wider feet. Neutral options are the Escalante or Torin. For overpronation, try the Paradigm.

Terry Braverman January 25, 2019 at 12:32pm
Shankara Smith January 25, 2019 at 5:39pm

In the past all support shoes for over-pronation tended to have a board last, or combination last, and shoes that were for the neutral foot strike had the slip last. As running shoe design has evolved the board has been replaced by other materials and support provided through things like guide rails, enabling shoes to be more flexible and comfortable. The neutral shoes don't have the traditional slip last per-say, there's no central line of stitching under the innersole but materials immediately under the foot are as softer and as flexible, if not more so. I'm guessing you have a neutral foot strike and are looking for a really responsive, smooth ride from your running shoes, many of the neutral shoes will offer exactly this experience. There are some that have more guidance aspects, even though still neutral, and you may find these too restrictive in feel but that would be the exception not the rule.

Hope this helps to clarify things a bit.

Cc rizza September 20, 2018 at 2:34am

I wish a replacement for New balance 1123 size 8 4 E women's.
I returned the same size 1540 as the quality was dreadful, the toe box narrower, and much less arch support and cushioning.
The New Balance quality has deteriorated.
Can you suggest a 4E women's shoe.

Bhashini Neve September 20, 2018 at 10:59am

Thanks for your enquiry. Here in the UK there are no specifically women's 4E running shoes available &ndash only men's. If you want to move away from New Balance and try something different with good cushioning and arch support, I'd suggest Brooks GTS 4E.

If you're a women's 8US that translates to a 6UK but if you're a men's 8US that's a 7.5UK in New Balance but 7UK in Brooks &ndash confusing, I know!

If you wanted to look at another New Balance 4E then maybe the 860. It's a long distance running shoe so the cushioning and stability are good and the engineered mesh upper has a bit more stretch to it than the uppers on the 1123 and the 1540.

Robin September 5, 2018 at 12:20pm
Bhashini Neve September 5, 2018 at 2:25pm

That's a difficult situation. There aren't any women's 4Es available in the UK. The widest shoe we've got in a size 4 is the Brooks GTS 2E.

You could always try getting a slightly larger size to get a bit more width or taking out the insole &ndash this gives you some more space inside the shoe but you don't have quite as soft a feeling underfoot.

Best of luck finding something that works.
Bhashini

Karen Livesey August 16, 2018 at 6:37pm
Shankara Smith August 16, 2018 at 11:04pm

Whilst the wide version of Speedcross is certainly wider than the regular fit, it's not super generous. In fact Inov-8's brand new Parkclaw, which they've constructed on a generous last, seems to be coming up wider. Speedcross wide is like an Asics D width, not a New Balance or Brooks D which are more generous. So, if you've been going up 2 sizes (poor you) then I'd try 1 size larger and see how that feels.

Vic July 25, 2018 at 4:46pm
Bhashini Neve July 26, 2018 at 12:12pm

Nike spikes tend to fit a bit wider than others. With a cushioned heel I'd suggest one of these two:
Nike Zoom D or Nike Zoom Rival D 10.

The Nike Zoom D is a slightly more anatomical shape ie a bit wider in the forefoot and the engineered mesh is a bit more open so you may find it stretches a bit better.

Hope this helps.
Happy track work,
Bhashini

Tony Johnson July 1, 2018 at 1:55pm

Just curious question about the Speedcross wide. I just bought these cause the standard XA pro hurt my feet as I have hallux valgus. I have fairly wide feet not extremely wide, very rectangular altra-ish.

The speedcross wide shoes seem to work for me but I get the impression the actual sole is not wider or at least not much. It seems more like they have overdimensioned the upper textile instead. They don't hurt but aren't perfect because they arent that stable laterally. You can slip around a little inside the shoes cause there are no "walls" on the sides.

Can you say how much wider the bottom soles are on the speedcross?

Bhashini Neve July 2, 2018 at 11:55am
Bhashini Neve July 2, 2018 at 4:01pm
Bhashini Neve July 9, 2018 at 11:24am
Arthur Bosman June 19, 2018 at 2:22pm
Bhashini Neve June 21, 2018 at 12:05pm

Sorry to hear about the problems you've had. Your poor father! Amputation seems like a very extreme measure.

Here in the UK, there's no running shoe available in a 6E from any of the manufacturers that we deal with. The only 6E I've found in internet searches is the MX624 cross trainer that you mentioned. The widest we can get is 4E and of the 4Es we stock New Balance 1080 and 860 would be the widest. They taper in the same way the MX624 does but the engineered mesh uppers will give a bit more than the leather of the MX624.

You're right -Altra shoes do have a wide toe design. They're shaped to fit our natural foot shape so they get wider at the front rather than narrower to give you room for your toes. Personally, my wide feet find them very comfortable but I'd say they're foot shaped rather than wide all round so if your arch and midfoot are wide then they'll probably be too snug across the middle. They just come in a standard width fitting - no 4Es or 6Es. Altra Torin has a spacious toe box and Escalante has a stretchy mesh upper which will adapt to the foot shape to a certain extent. For wider feet, Altra suggest removing the insole to create a bit more space inside the shoe.

I hope this is helpful information, Arthur.
Best of luck in your shoe search,
Regards
Bhashini

Si April 19, 2018 at 10:19am

Blimey Bhashini. a site with wide sports shoes that I've actually heard of!!

I have weird shaped feet from years of rugby, footie, running and walking! Unfortunately finding shoes and trainers has been a nightmare all my life due to wide feet and very short toes!! So width wise I have to go to a 9 and length wise I'm an 8/8.5!! So consequently my foot will fit the width but slide fore and aft and heel slipping out causing lots of problems! Recently been told to have some arch support shoes etc. I still love a jog and run on sorter surfaces ie canal paths, forests and beaches. More a easy triathlon runner than hard surface road runner.

If you could advise me which running shoe would provide me with the best all around option. They all seem good options to me.

Bhashini Neve April 19, 2018 at 1:48pm

It sounds like a wide fitting support shoe would be the right sort of thing. I'd maybe look at Brooks GTS 2E or New Balance 860 2E (4Es are available too if your foot's really wide). They're primarily road shoes but they'd be fine on the softer surfaces you mentioned as well &ndash although you'd perhaps slip a bit in the forest if it was really mushy underfoot. If you're able to get into any of our branches, you could try on a few different styles and run a bit outside in them to see what you like best.
Best of luck with finding something that works for you.
Bhashini

Nick April 7, 2018 at 2:57pm
Bhashini Neve April 18, 2018 at 1:03pm

Hi Nick,
That must be very annoying!
Have you tried elastic laces?
Bhashini

Mandy Buckley April 7, 2018 at 9:09am
Dipika Smith April 9, 2018 at 2:34pm

The Speedcross wide are definitely wider than most trail shoes, but I'd advise that none of the off road shoes are as wide as the Brooks woman's 2E width. Possibly if you are above a size 7UK, you could try the men's version of the Speedcross wide, as the men's shoes always come up a little wider.

Please feel free to visit one of our stores where our staff will be more than happy assist you.

Sherri March 11, 2018 at 4:35pm
Bhashini Neve March 13, 2018 at 10:28am

You could try Dyad 4E or NB 1080 4E. They're both good, solid, cushioned running shoes. If your arches collapse in then I'd try one of these two: Brooks GTS 4E or NB 860 4E &ndash also solid and cushioned but with some support on the inside to prevent the arches rolling in.

The best thing would be if you could come into one of our shops and try on a few different ones.

Christine February 6, 2018 at 2:00pm

Hi
I am looking for asics ladies nimbus 20 wide fit size 5 or any nimbus as I have high arches please advise

Bhashini Neve March 12, 2018 at 6:24pm

Hi Christine,
In the UK, the women's Nimbus doesn't come in a wide fit. If you wanted to try a similar shoe in a wide fitting, I'd suggest either Brooks Ghost D or New Balance 1080 D.
Best of luck with your running,
Bhashini

Ken January 9, 2018 at 6:48am

Hi
I currently run in New Balance 860 in a 2E fitting and find they are a prefect fit for me and provide a good level of support.

My usual routes are a mix of road, grass and dirt paths. I would love to get a pair of trail running shoes for the winter months as I'm sliding all over the place in my road shoes on muddy paths!

I emailed New Balance but they said they didn't have a trail shoe for stability & extra width. As I have quite wide feet and need a bit of stability (although I don't think I need very much) I've been struggling to find a suitable shoe.

A friend who is a very high weekly mileage and experienced runner recommended the Speedcross as a good all round trail shoe.

Do you think the Speedcross 4 wide is likely to suit me?

Bhashini Neve January 11, 2018 at 3:36pm

Speedcross Wide will give you good grip for the muddy months, that's for sure. Salomon tell me it's equivalent to a 2E width in other makes although trail shoes are often slightly tighter fitting than road shoes so they don't get sucked off your feet by the mud.

It won't give you as much support as 860 but if the ground is soft, then there'll be less impact so you're less likely to have a problem. I definitely think it's worth giving them a try but maybe stick to your road shoes for drier days when the ground will be firmer.

Robert December 27, 2017 at 8:57pm

What are the narrowest and most snug-fitting running shoes you know of?

I am in the market for new running shoes and have narrow and low-volume feet. In the past I have worn Asics and Brooks with narrow sizes. I am wondering if there is anything else out there (like racing shoes) that would fit snugger on my feet.

Bhashini Neve December 30, 2017 at 11:56am

Hi Robert,
You're right, racing shoes generally come up narrower than ordinary road running shoes. You could try Brooks Hyperion or Asteria
In Saucony you could try Type A or Fastwitch.
Good luck,
Bhashini

Robert January 4, 2018 at 9:18pm
Steve December 14, 2017 at 11:11am

Hi can you get the Brooks Adrenaline GTS 17 in size 9.5 4E if so what price

Bhashini Neve December 14, 2017 at 1:10pm
Sian November 25, 2017 at 1:16pm
Bhashini Neve November 25, 2017 at 4:26pm

You could try one of these two. Neither are specific wide widths but both fit quite generously, both suitable for a neutral runner:
Saucony Peregrine &ndash Great grip, nice cushioning, wider than most in the toe box.
Inov8 TrailTalon 250 &ndash This one is more minimal and closer to the ground, built on Inov8's Standard Last so it's roomy in the toe box again.

From January we'll have the Salomon Speedcross in a wide fit which I hope will be a good solution for us wide footed people who want to run trails.

Hope this helps.
All the best
Bhashini

Brian November 20, 2017 at 3:28pm
Bhashini Neve November 21, 2017 at 6:24pm

Hi Brian,
You could try the NB 1080, perhaps? It's got more cushioning than the 880 so it might be more suitable to you. It's built on an 8mm drop and it's nice and flexible so it might work well for you if you're a midfoot striker.
Best of luck with your running,
Bhashini

Jane October 6, 2017 at 9:28pm
Bhashini October 7, 2017 at 1:00pm

Hi Jane,
Low arches often lead to overpronation but if you have a lot of wear on the outside edges, it might be the opposite. Are you able to come into one of our branches so we can do a natural gait analysis and offer you a few different shoes to try?
All the best,
Bhashini

Alice Rawlings September 21, 2017 at 9:25pm
Bhashini Neve September 26, 2017 at 10:32am

None of the companies we stock offer us a specific wide fitting trail running shoe (although in January we'll be getting the Salomon Speedcross in a wide fitting which we're really looking forward to) so you'd be looking at the standard width options that come up the widest.

Currently I'd say the Inov8 Trailtalon 250 is fairly broad. It's a low profile 4mm drop trail shoe so it would be closer to the ground than your Mujins and it has less cushioning (but depending on the terrain, you might not need the cushioning element if you're running off road) and the grip is good.

The other option that fits generously is the Saucony Peregrine. 4mm again but with more cushioning and good traction.

Hope this helps.
Best of luck with your running,
Bhashini

Catrin Davies September 10, 2017 at 9:33am
Bhashini Neve September 12, 2017 at 11:28am

At 5.5, he'll need to go for one of the women's models. The New Balance wide fitting shoes are a bit more neutrally coloured. The 1080 is neutral with good cushioning, and the 860 has some support on the inside if his arches collapse inwards:

Sue little August 18, 2017 at 10:26pm
Marina Pekhovich August 21, 2017 at 12:31pm

We currently stock 2 women's models in a 2E width (extra wide): Brooks Dyad 2E (neutral) and Brooks GTS 17 (2E) (supportive).

These are the widest options that we can currently source in UK in women's shoes.

Linda July 5, 2017 at 5:50pm
Bhashini Neve July 5, 2017 at 7:09pm

Hi Linda,
The best thing would be if he could come into one of our shops and let us look at his foot strike and give him a few different options to try.
All the best,
Bhashini

Dariusz Drozdowski May 28, 2017 at 12:54am
Bhashini May 30, 2017 at 11:07am
Mike May 9, 2017 at 8:02pm
Bhashini Neve May 10, 2017 at 11:38am

In my experience, the New Balance shoes have the highest toe box. It's best to watch you run, if you can make it into one of our stores but sometimes a bow-legged runner is better off with a neutral shoe, even if there is a bit of pronation. I'd maybe try the men's 1080 which is reasonably stable for a neutral shoe.

Best of luck with your running,
Bhashini

George Green May 4, 2017 at 8:41pm

I'm looking for something wide, 8-12mm drop, but with a firm sole. I have Hallux Limitus, so need something with limited flexibility. Would the 1080 fit the bill?

Bhashini May 8, 2017 at 6:35pm

Thank you. I'm glad you liked it.
None of the running shoes are very stiff - they need to have an element of flexibility so you can run comfortably in them. But the 1080 has a reasonably firm sole so it might work for you. Alternatively the Dyad is quite firm underfoot - we have it in the 4E width which is the widest fitting.
Best of luck finding something that suits you.

Owen McDevitt April 15, 2017 at 11:27am

I am looking for wide fitting waterproof running shoe.

Bhashini Neve April 20, 2017 at 11:04am

That's because there isn't one - at least there isn't a wide fitting waterproof running shoe in a 4E that's available in the UK. We stock the Asics Fuji Trabuco GTX, which is waterproof, but it's only available in a standard width.

Some people get around the problem by purchasing a waterproof sock, which you could try, but in my experience they're not very stretchy and don't fit wide feet that well.

Sorry I couldn't be of more help.
All the best
Bhashini

Derek February 19, 2017 at 9:47pm
Bhashini Neve February 20, 2017 at 5:43pm
Garet February 15, 2017 at 2:23pm
Bhashini Neve February 15, 2017 at 4:32pm

None of the companies that we stock make a 4E width shoe with a 4mm drop, I'm afraid.

The widest of the 4mm drops that we have would be the Nike Free RN Distance or the Saucony Kinvara, but they won't be as wide as a 4E width.

Otherwise there's the Brooks Dyad in a 4E, but that's a 10mm drop so you might end up with the same problem you had with the 1080.

Colleen Sims February 9, 2017 at 12:34pm

Hello - I am a long distance hiker and I like walking in lightweight shoes rather than heavy boots or shoes. Last year I walked the 1006 km along the Via de la Plata in spain wearing Altra Lone Peak shoes.

I have a 2E wide foot and I tend to buy a mans's shoe for the extra width. I loved the width of this shoe but after the second day on the trail I started to experience foot pain. I still do when walking barefoot at home. and I do wonder if the zero drop didn't suit me.

So I'm back looking for a good lightweight shoe that fits a lady with a 2E wide foot (my normal shoe size is 8 but I go up a size with my walking footwear) . I need a shoe that will work on all trails and give support for long distance.

I live in France and I found it almost impossible to find a shoe to fit here so I know that mail order is the only way for me. I'm happy to order a few pairs to try and home and return if not the right fit. but I would dearly welcome some ideas and assistance.

Bhashini Neve February 9, 2017 at 6:57pm

As long as your gait is reasonably neutral and you don't need support for your arch, you could try either the New Balance 1080 or the Brooks Ghost. They both come in a men's 2E width. They'll both be lighter than walking boots and nice and cushioned and flexible. They are both designed for the road primarily although they'll give you a certain amount of grip off road.

If you need a bit more grip, you could try the Saucony Xodus which is a trail shoe so it would give you more traction in muddy conditions. Although it's not a specifically wide fitting shoe, it does come up wider than most. It's a 4mm drop which is quite low but not as extreme as your Altras so you may fare better with it.

An alternative trail shoe would be the Mizuno Mujin, which again comes up fairly wide and has a good, grippy outsole.

Mark February 2, 2017 at 8:42am

I currently have Asics 16's (8.5 my workhorse) and New Balance 1080v5 (9) and Nike Pegasus 31 (9) in my rotation. They are all nearing 500 miles, and I can't seem to find any online, as they are all a bit older now! )

What would you recommend as having a similar fit and cushion like the Nimbus 16 in more recent models?

Bhashini Neve February 2, 2017 at 10:38am

Have you tried the most recent Nimbus? It's got great cushioning and a nice adaptively fitting upper. It's just available on standard width at the moment though so if you need a wider fitting shoe, I'd maybe try the Ghost 2E.

Shirley January 23, 2017 at 12:37pm
Bhashini Neve January 24, 2017 at 10:30am

It's tricky when it comes to trail shoes. None of the trail shoes we stock come in specific wide fittings so it's a question of trying the widest of the standard width fittings. I'd suggest the Mizuno Mujin or the Saucony Peregrine.

Laura January 13, 2017 at 12:10pm

Hello, I found this thread because I have a proportionally wide forefoot to a very narrow heel. And also my arch is pretty high in comparison to how flat my forefoot is. I'm quite new to running and keen to progress but find my current trainers some kind of asics are not wide enough for me but also I get blisters because my heel rubs. Are any of the wider ladies shoes known for having a narrow heel? I can't wear pump type day to day shoes as they are bmbevwr wide enough and I walk out of them at the back as never right enough on my heel.

Bhashini Neve January 18, 2017 at 11:27am

Thanks for your comment. All the women's running shoes featured here should be wide in the forefoot but narrow in the heel. However, if your Asics trainers slip at the heel and cause you blisters, it sounds as if you have a particularly narrow heel. In that case, I find the best thing to do is to lace them in a particular way which grips better around the heel and reduces movement. I often have to do this with my own shoes. Here's a video which demonstrates this.

Best of luck with it.
Bhashini

Lucy January 3, 2017 at 10:44am
Bhashini Neve January 3, 2017 at 5:18pm

It's tricky when it comes to trail shoes. None of the trail shoes we stock come in specific wide fittings so it's a question of trying the widest of the standard width fittings. I'd suggest the Mizuno Mujin
or the Saucony Peregrine

Chloe Sales October 30, 2016 at 11:54am

Hi,was wandering whether you are going to bring out some new styles on your women's wide fitting neutral road running range as I have got the brooks goats 9D already.

Bhashini November 1, 2016 at 11:00am

There'll be a new New Balance W1080 coming out in January which looks really nice &ndash we're looking forward to that one coming in. From the companies we deal with, there's not so much availability in wide fitting neutral shoes as there is in support shoes. We try to stock a range but if they don't offer us much to choose from it has to be a small range :)

Best of luck with your running,
Bhashini

Moana October 5, 2016 at 7:55pm
Bhashini Neve October 11, 2016 at 12:35pm

Do you need a neutral shoe or a support shoe? In my experience the highest toe boxes are in the New Balance shoes, the W1080 is the neutral shoe and the W860 is the support one.
What shoe have you been using up till now and how have you got on with it? If the marathon is in a month, it would be a good idea to stick with something as close to what you've been training in as possible if it's worked for you.

Best of luck with the race,
Bhashini

Kate September 19, 2016 at 11:00pm
Bhashini Neve September 20, 2016 at 3:03pm

The Brooks GTS comes in a 2E. Limited sizes available now because there's a new model coming out in November.

Of the D width fitting shoes for women, some are wider than others. For instance the New Balance D widths come up a bit wider and deeper than the Brooks Ds.

Louise September 19, 2016 at 3:04pm
Bhashini Neve September 20, 2016 at 2:56pm

As far as I know there are no women's running shoes available in a 4E width fitting. 2E is the widest we've been able to get. The men's 4Es start at a UK 6 or 7 so hopefully you could fit into one of them.

Riaan Myburgh September 13, 2016 at 12:27pm

I am after a wide fit gore tex running shoe that's a 2E or 4E which I can use for running and working in?
I do sport television camerawork and I stand for long hours?
I do have my own orthotics that need to fit inside the shoe too?
Your advice will be much appreciated ?

Bhashini September 13, 2016 at 6:55pm

From the makes we stock there are no 2E or 4E Goretex shoes available. We do have a few different 2E and 4E options in road running shoes. They have plenty of cushioning for running/working and will be roomy enough that you can take out the insoles and put your orthoses in instead.

You could try the Brooks Ghost 2E, or the Brooks Dyad 4E, or the New Balance M1080 which is available in 2E and 4E.

The only disadvantage is that the mesh uppers will let in the rain but on the flip side, they'll be nice and breathable for running and wearing when it's hot.

Mark September 7, 2016 at 1:00pm

I am looking for shoes that are zero drop in 4E size. any thoughts you have are appreciated. I am a neutral runner with textbook perfect stride. I am larger than most runners playing multi-sports at 220 lbs. Also need wide toe box with thinner heel.

Bhashini Neve September 7, 2016 at 5:03pm

Currently there are no zero drop running shoes available from any of the brands we stock. There used to be but they've all been discontinued now. The lowest we have is 4mm and from the neutral 4mm drop shoes we stock the widest fitting would probably be either the Saucony Kinvara or the Nike Free RN Distance.

Jane Brooks August 22, 2016 at 4:05pm
Bhashini Neve August 30, 2016 at 5:07pm
Ben August 21, 2016 at 12:37am
Bhashini Neve August 30, 2016 at 5:03pm
Tracy August 8, 2016 at 7:12pm
Bhashini Neve August 9, 2016 at 12:41pm
Mike Allen July 27, 2016 at 2:28pm

I get gout occasionally and my foot swells -- I need a wide shoe 4e or better -- Not so pinched at end where swelling happens. and need good cushion under Desophagus and Occipital Neck .

Bhashini Neve July 27, 2016 at 4:59pm

Hi Mike,
Thanks for your comment. I hope it's not too painful. Here are the 4E shoes we stock:

The New Balance shoes tend to be a bit deeper and rounder in the toe box so they may be a better bet for a swollen foot. They're long distance running shoes so the cushioning is good in all of them.

Eddie Wilson July 26, 2016 at 4:09pm

Hello - I wonder if you could offer advice on wide fit (at least wide toe box) shoes for technical terrain. I am pretty well adapted to the minimal style. My main road shoes are NB minimus MR10 and on the local muddy trails here in Somerset, I have used NB MT10 both v2 and v3 and have been very happy with them.

However, in my view the NB MT10 does not have enough protection or grip for very technical terrain, eg fell running in the Lake District.

Most fell shoes seem to be too narrow for my feet. I have got myself a pair of Inov8 Roclite 295 - which are just about ok, wider than all the other inov8 it seems, but still the toe box is not really wide enough for me - particularly running down hill, I get a contact between big toe and toe box which is really not good.

Bhashini Neve July 27, 2016 at 11:22am

That's tricky. Most fell shoes come up pretty narrow so they don't pull off your feet when you're going through muddy bits but that doesn't help the wider footed amongst us.
The widest we have is this new Inov8 fellrunning shoe the X Claw 275, which is built on their wider Standard Fit last (same as the Roclite). It has their ultra grippy Mudclaw outsole so it would give you great traction on the muddy paths of Somerset.

Alternatively, the new New Balance MT10 v4 has a differently configured outsole from the two you've had before. It's not as grippy as the X Claw but it might be worth a look.

Best of luck with it,
Bhashini

Joanna July 24, 2016 at 2:00pm

Hi there, great to read all the advice on this page.
I've worn Mizuno wave connect for about a year but found they were causing me to have a painful toe joint as they are quite narrow.
So I switched to a New Balance W870 - which is supremely comfortable - nice and wide but is a bit soft and now quite supportive enough in the heel and has aggravated my Achilles. (can't win!)

I'd like to switch back to a mizuno but not sure if there is a shoe that will be wider than the Wave Connect that wont then upset my toe! (I'm a slight over pronator) could you offer any suggestions?

Bhashini Neve July 26, 2016 at 10:46am

You could try the Mizuno Wave Inspire. It's a bit more supportive than the Connect but to be honest, I'm not sure it will come up much wider. I have pretty wide feet and I wear them but I get them in a half size bigger than I would take with a wider fitting shoe.

In New Balance, you could always try the W860 which is firmer and more supportive than the W870 and comes in a D fit if you need it

Have you ever tried Brooks? The Ravenna D width is wide and supportive, not as much as the W860 but if you're a slight pronator it would probably be enough.

Jenny Allan July 21, 2016 at 9:41am
Bhashini Neve July 21, 2016 at 11:11am

Do you intend to keep using the insoles? In which case I'd suggest one of the wide fitting neutral shoes: Brooks Ghost 9 D or New Balance W1080 V6 D.

They're both wide but the New Balance shoe tends to be a bit deeper which I think is helpful to keep the pressure off Morton's Neuroma.

If you want to stop using the insole &ndash and that might be a good idea as insoles take up extra space in the shoe and with a neuroma you want to give the foot as much room as possible &ndash and your feet pronate I'd suggest one of the support shoes: New Balance 1080 V6 D, Brooks GTS 16 D or Brooks GTS 16 2E.

Again, the New Balance is deepest but the GTS in the 2E width is the widest laterally.

I hope this helps.
All the best,
Bhashini

Tim June 22, 2016 at 5:58pm

great list - I'm the proud owner of 2E high arched and different sized feet (266 left and 272 right). I'm after a trail show and a cushioned shoe for the road. Care to recommend something?

FWIW I currently run both in Hoka Bondi's but they're pretty expensive - and the left shoe is too small.

Bhashini June 27, 2016 at 11:11am

Thanks for your comment. With the inserts, I'm guessing you need a neutral shoe for the road? In which case I'd try New Balance 1080 or Brooks Ghost.

The trail is more difficult because there's nothing in a 2E width that we can get our hands on. Of the standard widths that we have currently, I reckon these two are the widest: Mizuno Mujin, which has good grip and a bit of medial support, or Inov8 Roclite 295, which is lower in profile.

Best of luck with your running,
Bhashini

Hayley June 8, 2016 at 11:22am
Wendy June 8, 2016 at 12:00am
Bhashini June 8, 2016 at 10:23am

Thanks for your comment. Heel leading is quite normal, it's what happens afterwards &ndash does the arch collapse inwards (pronation) or does it stay upright (neutral footstrike) that's important.

If you've been happy with the Brooks Ghost 7, apart from wearing through the bunion area, then a neutral shoe probably suits you. You could consider the New Balance women's 1080 which comes up a bit wider, maybe? Or have a look at the current Ghost &ndash Ghost 8 &ndash which has a different kind of upper from the Ghost 7 and might be a bit more resistant to wearing through.

If, at any point you can make it into one of our stores, we could take a look at you running and give you some other suggestions.

Geoffrey May 28, 2016 at 4:24pm
Bhashini Neve June 2, 2016 at 1:54pm

That's quite tough, there aren't any specifically wide fitting trail running shoes that we know of &ndash at least from the brands that we stock and that are available in the UK. So you'd need to pick from the widest of the standard width shoes. I'd maybe try the Inov 8 Roclite 295. It's similar in profile to the Reebok Spartan shoe &ndash low and grippy &ndash but might come up a bit wider.

Good luck with the race,
Bhashini

Mr McCaffrey May 19, 2016 at 6:19pm
Shankara Smith May 20, 2016 at 10:44am

Quite often people who suffer from bunions have flatter feet that benefit from some support under the arch, in an effort to lessen the pressure going through the big toe joint. Without seeing your feet it's very hard to judge which shoes will best support you but I'd imagine the New Balance M860 4E would be in with a chance as it is wide, soft on the uppers, has no support banding going over the bunion area, and offers arch support.

If you're able to visit one of our stores we will be able to fit you out properly and ensure the shoes support you perfectly.

Darby Lewes May 16, 2016 at 11:56pm
Bhashini May 17, 2016 at 10:20am

There aren't any specifically wide fitting racing flats available in the UK that I know of. The Mizuno Hitogami is the widest we've got at the moment. It's nice and round in the toe box and often accomodates a wider foot.

Kelly May 6, 2016 at 4:13pm
Bhashini Neve May 10, 2016 at 1:10pm

Hi Kelly
The Ghost 8 is wider than the version 7 was but not as wide as some of the previous Ghosts have been.
You could try the women's New Balance 1080 if it's a neutral shoe you're after. It's wider than the Ghost as well as being light and cushioned.
Best of luck,
Bhashini

Cooker April 20, 2016 at 9:26pm
Bhashini Neve April 21, 2016 at 11:16am

Hi, that's a tricky one. There aren't any wide fitting trail shoes that we know of, available in the UK at least.
From our current range I'd say these two are the widest: Inov-8 Roclite 295 and Saucony Xodus.

David Wright June 11, 2021 at 10:48am
Nandanti Martaskova June 12, 2021 at 3:22pm
Mike March 24, 2016 at 10:48pm

I wear 10 1/2 Shoe. I own New Balance shoe in 24. It's too wide but the D is too narrow. Any suggestions in other brands that might have a wider Size D or a E width shoe.?

Bhashini March 29, 2016 at 10:05am
NA March 19, 2016 at 1:11am

I have found comfortable shoes but not trainers (strangely it useed to be vice versa). I have some New Balance shoes but having worn them for 6+ months, they're not the most comfortable. I used to have Mizuno Wave Rider 17s, which were comfortable.

I need a wide trainer which has a spacious and deep toe box (as much as can be for a trainer). I tend to usually go for 2e trainers, which are wide enough. I also need a soft trainer as I'm prone to hard skin, corns, etc.

Bhashini March 19, 2016 at 5:25pm
Eileen cowan March 11, 2016 at 5:25pm
Bhashini Neve March 12, 2016 at 3:22pm

All the running shoes have removable insoles, and are incredibly comfy for walking too. If you are after a neutral shoe, then the New Balance 1080 'D' width would be a good option.

If you can make it into a store, then we can help you to find the perfect fit.

Rob February 14, 2016 at 11:34am

What about wide fit trail running shoes?

Bhashini Neve February 15, 2016 at 10:27am

Yes, indeed, what about wide fit trail running shoes! From the brands we stock, there's nothing we can get hold of currently trail shoe wise that comes in a specific wide fitting. I used to have some of the wider fitting standard width options listed in this post but I took them down because I didn't want to mislead people into thinking they were actually a specific wide fit.
From our current range, I'd say these two are the widest:
Saucony Xodus and Inov8 Trailroc (discontinued now but we still have some stock)

Best of luck with your running,
Bhashini

Amit February 9, 2016 at 7:56am
Bhashini Neve February 9, 2016 at 10:28am
Natasha Reece January 29, 2016 at 10:34am
Bhashini Neve February 1, 2016 at 12:40pm

Hi Natasha,
Sounds like you'd be best looking at one of the anti-pronation options. Best to come in to one of our shops and try on a few different pairs if you can. Maybe the New Balance Women's 860 in the D width, or the Brooks Women's GTS in the D or 2E width depending on how wide your feet are.
All those options have plenty of cushioning and support to stop your feet rolling inwards.
Best of luck,
Bhashini

Marion January 13, 2016 at 6:59pm
Bhashini January 14, 2016 at 10:59am
Fiona December 28, 2015 at 3:14pm
Bhashini December 30, 2015 at 1:22pm

That's tricky because they don't make any trail shoes in wide fittings that we know of.
From the shoes we have in stock, I'd say this is the widest but it's discontinued now so we don't have all sizes: Saucony Excursion TR 8
Second widest would be this one, lower profile than Cascadia but good grip: Inov-8 Roclite 280

Hope that helps,
All the best,
Bhashini

Michael Robinson November 28, 2015 at 9:27pm

Hi I have tried a few of these shoes but the wide New Balance shoes tend to be wide throughout the shoe and my foot really needs the toe room. My first 3 toes are the same length and I regularly get blisters on the 3rd one. Any ideas what would work well for toe room?

Bhashini November 30, 2015 at 11:48am

As you say most of them tend to be wide all over rather than just in the toe box. Have you tried any of the Brooks shoes/ They're a different shape so they might work better.

Mary November 26, 2015 at 9:40pm
Bhashini November 27, 2015 at 10:05am

Hi Mary,
If you need support, I'd suggest the New Balance W860 in D or the Brooks W GTS in D or 2E if you need a really wide one. No Black Friday deals but our sale starts Monday so keep checking in.
All the best,
Bhashini

John October 26, 2015 at 1:08pm
Bhashini Neve October 26, 2015 at 4:03pm

That's tricky. The minimal shoes we can get in the UK are all just available in a standard width fitting. The widest in our current range is probably the New Balance MR10 with a 4mm drop and no support or control but whether or not it's going to be wide enough to fit a 4E foot, I'm not sure.
We've also got some sizes in the Altra shoes which are zero drop and foot-shaped so they'll be wider than most, although we no longer stock them because they haven't sold very well for us.

Best of luck finding something that works.

Michelle September 23, 2015 at 10:24am
Bhashini Neve September 23, 2015 at 11:44am
Sue Edgley September 22, 2015 at 2:06pm
Bhashini Neve September 23, 2015 at 11:43am

We don't have the Gore-Tex version in a 4UK yet but we'll have it soon - probably at the beginning of next week. Although these are quite wide compared to other trail running shoes, you might still find them a bit neat because the Gore-Tex upper doesn't give that much. The road shoes in a D width will be wider but mesh uppers will let the wet in to a certain extent and if your common land gets really muddy, they won't give so much grip - they all come in a size 4 though.

Hope you find something to suit.
All the best,
Bhashini

Ruth September 25, 2015 at 6:42am
Ruth September 25, 2015 at 6:45am
Jenny July 25, 2015 at 8:26am
Bhashini Neve July 27, 2015 at 11:08am

Hi Jenny,
That's tricky. Is it the Brooks GTS he has in the 2E width fitting? That one is available in a 4E width now which is even wider than the 2E. That might be a solution. I can see how lots of bouncing on the balls of the foot might strain the shoes more than ordinary running but if he has a bit more space in the shoe that might help.
Best of luck,
Bhashini

Padmore Plodder June 22, 2015 at 10:53pm
Bhashini Neve June 23, 2015 at 5:54pm
Mel June 3, 2015 at 3:29pm

I need to find a shoe that will accommodate my bunions is with a mesh or soft fabric upper and side but also but with minimal overlay / stitching or patterns at the bunion area as I have had tried trainers before and its rub, would the Brooks Ghost be good for me ?

Bhashini Neve June 3, 2015 at 3:41pm
Jacqueline June 3, 2015 at 3:27pm

Brooks Dyad 8 is meant to be a very good shoe for supination/neutral walking/running.

This shoe is sold in the US for women in width D (wide) and 2E (extra wide) yet it is nearly impossible to find that width for ladies in the UK.

Are you likely to start stocking 2E width in ladies running shoes? In the light of the fact that the UK population is getting bigger it is inevitable that people's feet will become wider.

Your own site advises customers that it is much better to try shoes on instore to ensure a proper fit etc. but if you don't stock the widths required then it means customers have to order online and wait a long time for delivery and if the shoe doesn't fit properly it means sending them back and re-ordering.

Shankara Smith June 3, 2015 at 3:38pm

Shoes come up differently and some styles are broader than others, we find it’s only on rare occasions that we’re unable to fit a customer’s feet from the selection that we carry. Currently the D fitting of the New Balance 860 is probably the broadest women’s shoe but even then it depends on the shape of the foot as to what will fit the best.

The brands are starting to create more options for wider feet in the UK, we are seeing broader options in more styles. This winter we will be able to order the Dyad in a wide fitting for men, and New Balance have increased the number of styles available in 4E. At present they’re bringing in these wider options just in the men’s range to begin with, it is likely this will extend to the women’s too in time, as long as the brands find enough interest in the extra wide fits. Some broader fits - like the 2E Dyad for women are available in the US but not over here at present.

Corinne October 6, 2014 at 3:14pm
Bhashini Neve October 6, 2014 at 3:48pm

It's tricky to advise without having seen you run. Are you able to come into one of our branches for a natural gait analysis?

Do your shoes wear on the outside of the forefoot or just the outside of the heel? If they wear on the outside of the forefoot as well then you'd probably be best off with a neutral shoe, something like the Brooks Ghost. It's a road running shoe but the outsole would give you a bit of grip offroad as well. Which model was your Asics trainer? Do you get any pains in the knees, shins or achilles tendons? If you take the insole out of the Asics shoes, is the wear fairly even or is there more of an indentation on the inside of the forefoot?

The Ghost is a pretty stable shoe and if you're doing half ironmans I should imagine your legs are pretty strong so I would guess it would be OK for you. If you're at all able to get into one of our stores, we could take a proper look at you running and give you a few different options.

Steve August 14, 2014 at 8:56pm

I thought I had struck lucky when I found this article as I have been on a long search for a wide (2E or 4E) support/stability, trail running shoe. I am happy with Brooks Adrenaline for the road and dry trails but I need something for the winter and Transarabia. I run long races and need the support but I also have very wide feet. Wide fitting/trail/support shoes seems to be the only category missing. Am I searching for the impossible. If I had to make a compromise I would probably have to go back to orthotics and stick with a wide fitting trail shoe. Any recommendations appreciated

Many thanks and great article

Bhashini Neve September 2, 2014 at 4:49pm

Thanks for your comment. Sorry to say, you are kind of searching for the impossible, at least from what's available in the UK. Brooks do the ASR which is the off road version of the Adrenaline but only in the standard D width fitting. The Mizuno Kazan is fairly broad but if you're usually in a 2E or 4E, I don't think it's going to be wide enough.

I think your best bet, as you say, would be a wide-fitting trail shoe with an orthotic. Between the Trailroc 245 and the Lone Peak, the Lone Peak might be a better bet as it's got a bit more cushioning for the long distances. Also it's a bit sturdier than the Trailroc so it might hold the orthotic better.

Hope this helps, best of luck with your running.
All the best,
Bhashini

Kevin January 21, 2016 at 9:45pm
Bhashini January 25, 2016 at 9:45am
Britgurlrocks June 12, 2014 at 10:32pm
Bhashini Neve August 13, 2014 at 12:54pm
Chantel April 11, 2014 at 6:59pm
Shankara Smith April 15, 2014 at 1:43pm

It could be that the Asics you had previously, although not giving your forefoot enough room to be comfortable in, were more supportive and you're missing the support under the arch in the 1080. It's possible the problem could be solved with a pair of insoles but the best thing will be to come in with your shoes and we can check out exactly what's going on and see what the best solution is. The perfect balance between happy bunion area and happy arches will be there. We just need to find it!


FRACTURES OF THE ACETABULUM, HIP DISLOCATIONS, AND FEMORAL HEAD FRACTURES

acetabular fractures. We emphasize several descriptive terms in the
discussion of acetabular fractures. The internal iliac fossa, the
quadrilateral surface, and the retroacetabular surface describe large
cortical surfaces of the innominate bone. The pelvic brim marks the
junction of the internal iliac fossa and quadrilateral surface. The
sciatic notch marks the junction of the quadrilateral surface and the
retroacetabular surface ( Fig. 18.1 ).

has
been the standard by which articular displacement has been measured,
both before and after surgery. In the emerging age of digital
radiography, however, in which the size of the AP pelvis and Judet
views is altered, the CT image may become a more reliable method of
articular assessment. CT is better suited for evaluating certain
fracture characteristics including marginal impaction, rotation of
major fragments, coronal fracture lines, and incarcerated osteochondral
fragments ( Fig. 18.3 ) ( 18 , 28 , 51 ).

surface
of the edge of the major fracture line is displaced secondary to
impaction of the underlying cancellous bone, with malrotation of the
overlying articular surface. In Figure 18.3 ,
marginal impaction is noted as a change in the radius of curvature of
the articular surface. It is important for surgeons to recognize this
radiographic feature of articular displacement so that they can correct
the displacement. Complex posterior wall fractures can involve the
entire retroacetabular surface and include a portion of the greater or
lesser sciatic notch and the ischial tuberosity. The ilioischial line
remains intact on the AP view ( Fig. 18.4A ).

prominently
reveals the fractured edge of the intact posterior iliac wing relative
to the medially displaced articular segments. This sign is
pathognomonic of a both-column injury ( Fig. 18.5 ) ( 28 ).

impaction of the articular surface, and retainedosteochondral fragments with joint incongruence ( 54 ).

that allows motion of the hip and knee while the patient is in traction ( 40 ).
Traction should not be so great that it distracts the femoral head from
the acetabulum. Skeletal traction, particularly if initiated early
while the fracture hematoma is liquid, can occasionally produce a
surprisingly good reduction ( 62 ). Release of
traction before complete healing, however, typically results in
redisplacement of the fracture. We believe that lateral skeletal
traction through the greater trochanter is not beneficial and can even
cause severe problems such as infection of the greater trochanter or
soft tissues lateral to the hip joint. Do not use traction through the
greater trochanter if any surgical treatment is being considered.

wall fractures with marginal impaction, as well as complex patterns
involving the greater sciatic notch. The prone position prevents
subluxation of the femoral head, which may complicate reduction.

component the other is minimally displaced. In this case, a single surgical approach is usually adequate.

displacement
imperfect: 2 to 3 mm maximal displacement and bad: more than 3 mm
maximal displacement. Clinical outcome was determined by a modified
d’Aubigne and Postel hip score ( Table 18.7 ). The quality of reduction per fracture type is listed in Table 18.8 .

fracture
fragments and reducing the articular surface. Johnson et al. reported
on 188 fractures treated surgically between 21 and 120 days after
injury ( 24 ).
There was an increased incidence of sciatic nerve palsies (12%) and
osteonecrosis of the femoral head (13%), with 50% of the osteonecrosis
occurring with persistent dislocation for more than 3 weeks. Overall,
there was a 65% incidence of good or excellent results. The poorest
results occurred in simple anterior wall fractures, simple posterior
wall fractures, associated transverse and posterior wall fractures, and
T -shaped fractures.

were impaction fractures of the femoral head. The articular impaction
presumably resulted from impingement of the femoral head against the
anterior rim of the acetabulum as it rebounded against the anterior rim
of the acetabulum. Anterior dislocation typically occurs when the hip
is overabducted and overextended.

emergency setting, is important. Carefully examine the patient’s neurologic status both before and after reduction of the hip.

residual incongruence between the femoral head and the acetabulum,
evaluation of acetabular fractures identifying femoral head fractures,
and identification of retained osteochondral fragments within the hip
joint ( 15 ).

Make
every attempt to ensure that the femoral neck is not displaced during
reduction. If there is any question regarding displacement of the
femoral neck during the attempt at reduction, fixate the femoral neck
before performing open or closed reduction of the femoral head
dislocation. Place a Schantz pin from the lateral cortex up into the
femoral head, attached to a T -handle
to reduce the shear forces across the femoral neck and aid the
reduction. Hip dislocations with a displaced femoral neck fracture are
an absolute indication for open reduction of the femoral neck fracture
and femoral head dislocation.

of
arthritis in small femoral head impaction injuries. There are no data,
however, to demonstrate that this method prevents the development of
posttraumatic arthritis in the long term.


State Volleyball Brackets and Results

Sheridan, Cody, Wright, and Cokeville won volleyball titles in Casper on Saturday.    Sheridan fell in game one to Laramie, but, won the next three in hard fought fashion to take their first title since 1986.   Cody also fell in game 1 to Douglas in the 3A title match, but, repeated as champions.    Wright swept Lovell to win their first crown since 1998.   Conversely,  Cokeville won their 18th title as they swept Kaycee in a rematch of last year&aposs title game in which Kaycee won in five.

Thursday, October 27th:

(#4W) Riverton 1, (#1E) Sheridan 3 (18-25, 25-27, 26-24, 18-25)

(#3E) Gillette 3, (#2W) Evanston 1 (25-23, 19-25, 25-23, 25-15)

(#3W) Rock Springs 2, (#2E) Laramie 3 (17-25, 21-25, 25-23, 25-18, 13-15)

(#4E) East 0, (#1W) Kelly Walsh 3 (20-25, 19-25, 13-25)

Friday, October 28th:

Consolation Round:

Rivertonਃ, Evanston 2 (25-21, 23-25, 25-21, 10-25, 16-14)

Rock Springsਂ, East 3 (25-15, 25-12, 18-25, 20-25, 11-15)

Sheridan 3 Gillette 2 (25-23, 23-25, 25-20, 18-25, 15-7)

Laramieਃ, Kelly Walsh 1 (25-15, 25-20, 27-29, 25-22)

Saturday, October 29th:

Consolation Round:

East 1 Gillette 3 (25-23, 20-25, 22-25, 22-25)

Riverton 3, Kelly Walsh 2 (19-25, 20-25, 26-24, 25-19, 19-17)

Gillette 3, Riverton 0 (25-20, 25-21, 25-14) 3rd Place

Sheridan 3 Laramie 1 (22-25, 29-27, 25-16, 28-26) Championship

(#4W) Pinedale 0, (#1E) Douglas  3 (10-25, 22-25, 22-25)

(#3E) Wheatland 3, (#2W) Lander Valley 2 (23-25, 26-24, 19-25, 25-20, 15-8)

(#3W) Star Valley 3, (#2E) Glenrock 1 (25-20, 22-25, 25-10, 25-16)

(#4E) Torrington 0, (#1W) Cody 3 (15-25, 12-25, 14-25)

Friday, October 28th:

Consolation Round:

Pinedaleਃ, Lander 1 (19-25, 25-15, 25-15, 25-20)

Glenrockਂ, Torrington 3 (17-25, 25-18, 22-25, 25-23, 9-15)

Douglasਃ, Wheatland 0 (25-20, 25-21, 25-22)

Star Valley਀, Cody 3 (18-25, 20-25, 18-25)

Saturday, October 29th:

Consolation Round:

Torrington 3 Wheatland 1 (10-25, 18-25, 25-16, 20-25)

Pinedale 0 Star Valley 3 (22-25, 23-25, 10-25)

Torrington 1, Star Valley 3 (15-25, 25-22, 21-25, 16-25)  3rd Place

Douglas 1, Cody 3 (25-20, 24-26, 21-25, 18-25) Championship

(#4W) Greybull 0, (#1E) Wright 3 (16-25, 25-27, 8-25)

(#3E) Pine Bluffs 3, (#2W) Shoshoni 0 (25-20, 25-20, 25-20)

(#3W) Thermopolis 1, (#2E) Big Horn 3 (22-25, 25-15, 22-25, 19-25)

(#4E) Southeast 0, (#1W) Lovell 3 (16-25, 20-25, 20-25)

Friday, October 28th:

Consolation Round:

Greybullਁ, Shoshoni 3 (25-20, 15-25, 14-25, 19-25)

Thermopolisਂ, Southeast 3 (21-25, 27-25, 25-20, 17-25, 8-15)

Wrightਃ, Pine Bluffs 1 (17-25, 25-17, 25-9, 25-21)

Big Horn਀, Lovell 3 (19-25, 21-25, 16-25)

Saturday, October 29th:

Consolation Round:

Southeast 0 Pine Bluffs 3 (22-25, 10-25, 24-26)

Shoshoni 2, Big Horn 3 (24-26, 25-23, 19-25, 25-23, 11-15)

Pine Bluffs 2, Big Horn 3 (25-17, 25-12, 15-25, 21-25, 12-15) 3rd Place Game

Wright 3, Lovell 0 (25-12, 25-21, 25-12) Championship

(#4W) H.E.M. 1, (#1E) Kaycee  3 (12-25, 25-23, 18-25, 13-25)

(#3E) Hulett 0, (#2W) Little Snake River 3 (13-25, 18-25, 11-25)

(#3W) Cokeville 3, (#2E) Guernsey 0 (25-22, 25-23, 25-18)

(#4E) Arvada-Clearmont 0, (#1W) Burlington 3 (13-25, 15-25, 16-25)

Friday, October 28th:

Consolation Round:

H.E.M.਀, Hulett 3 (21-25, 15-25, 23-25)

Guernseyਃ, Arvada-Clearmont 2 (25-16, 16-25, 22-25, 25-16, 15-13)

Kayceeਃ, Little Snake River 0 (25-21, 25-18, 25-21)

Cokevilleਃ, Burlington 1 (25-20, 26-24, 23-25, 25-21)

Saturday, October 29th:

Consolation Round:

Guernsey 2 Little Snake River 3 (25-18, 19-25, 22-25, 25-19, 10-15)


18.4E: Exercises

The Go Playground is a web service that runs on golang.org's servers. The service receives a Go program, vets, compiles, links, and runs the program inside a sandbox, then returns the output.

If the program contains tests or examples and no main function, the service runs the tests. Benchmarks will likely not be supported since the program runs in a sandboxed environment with limited resources.

There are limitations to the programs that can be run in the playground:

  • The playground can use most of the standard library, with some exceptions. The only communication a playground program has to the outside world is by writing to standard output and standard error.
  • In the playground the time begins at 2009-11-10 23:00:00 UTC (determining the significance of this date is an exercise for the reader). This makes it easier to cache programs by giving them deterministic output.
  • There are also limits on execution time and on CPU and memory usage.

The article "Inside the Go Playground" describes how the playground is implemented. The source code is available at https://go.googlesource.com/playground.

The playground uses the latest stable release of Go.
The current version is go1.16.5.

The playground service is used by more than just the official Go project (Go by Example is one other instance) and we are happy for you to use it on your own site. All we ask is that you contact us first (note this is a public mailing list), use a unique user agent in your requests (so we can identify you), and that your service is of benefit to the Go community.


Men's Brooks Dyad 10

To deliver a premium level of service for our clients, our Fit Specialists are trained to understand proper footwear fitting principles, performance footwear functionality, proper foot measurement/sizing, the relationship between footwear and orthotics, and how to perform a walking gait analysis.

In addition to our expertise, we carry a large variety of footwear brands, many of which come with width options to accommodate a number of different foot shapes. Having long standing relationships with footwear brands such as New Balance, Brooks, Mizuno, Asics, Saucony, and Dunham, to name a few, we do our best to keep those wider widths and bigger sizes in stock on a regular basis. This gives our customers a vast range of fitting options.

Coupling our expertise and services together with a vast catalog of footwear choices, we hope to make a visit to our stores a truly memorable experience.

Founded in 1982, Sports 4 humbly began in a space of only 1000 square feet, with a small staff of 4, and only 2 running shoe models. Despite the business' expansion, and several changes over the years, one thing remains consistent: our commitment to creating a welcoming, unique, and informed active-wear shopping experience for the Ottawa region.

We still believe in that "mom and pop shop" kind of environment, and the level of care that comes with small community focused business. We may not have all the flash of a large corporate store, but after 37 years in business we've found that taking care of our customers can sometimes go a lot further than expensive ads and displays.


Part II E+W+S Licensing and Regulation—Particular Activities

9 Application of sections 10 to 27 and 38 to 44. S

(1) Sections 10 to 27 (except section 20), any regulations made under the said section 20, and sections 38 to 43 [ F1 (except section 41A) ] of this Act and any order made under section 44(1)(a) of this Act (which sections regulations and order are in this section called the “optional provisions”) shall have effect in the area of a licensing authority only if and insofar as the authority have so resolved in accordance with subsections (2) to (8) below.

(2) A licensing authority may, in accordance with this section, resolve that, as from a day specified in the resolution (which must not be before the expiration of the period of nine months beginning with the day on which the resolution was made) any activity provision for the licensing and regulation of which is made by the optional provisions shall require to be licensed in accordance with the provisions of this Act relating to that activity and shall be regulated by those provisions.

(3) Subject to subsections (4) and (5) below, a resolution under this section may be made—

(a) in relation to all or any of the activities referred to in subsection (2) above

(b) in relation to the whole or any part of the area of the licensing authority

(i) all classes of an activity referred to in any of the optional provisions or

(ii) all such classes subject to exceptions or

(iii) any particular such class or classes.

(4) A licensing authority may not make a resolution under this section relating to any of the activities provision for the licensing and regulation of which is made in sections 10 to 23 of this Act (that is to say the operation of a vehicle as a taxi, the operation of a vehicle as a hire car, the driving of a taxi and the driving of a hire car) unless it relates to all these activities.

(5) A resolution made under this section by the licensing authority relating to—

(a) the activity provision for the licensing and regulation of which is made in sections 24 to 27 of this Act (that is to say the carrying on of business as a second-hand dealer) shall specify the particular class or classes of that activity which shall thereby fall to be licensed and regulated

(b) the activity provision for the licensing of which is made in section 41 of this Act (that is to say the use of premises as a place of public entertainment) shall specify the place or places, or class or classes thereof, which shall thereby fall to be licensed.

(6) A licensing authority shall not make a resolution under this section unless they have—

(a) published in a newspaper or newspapers circulating in their area the terms of the proposed resolution together with a notice stating—

(i) that they intend to make the resolution and

(ii) that representations about the resolution may be made in writing to the authority within 28 days of the first publication of the notice and

(b) considered any representations so made.

(7) A licensing authority, before proceeding to make a resolution under this section, may make such modifications to the proposed resolution as they think fit in the light of representations made to them about it provided such modifications do not extend its scope.

(8) The licensing authority shall, as soon as they have made a resolution under subsection (2) above, publish in a newspaper or newspapers circulating in their area—

(a) the terms of the resolution so made together with

(i) that with effect from the date specified as that on which the resolution comes into effect it will be an offence under section 7(1) of this Act to do without a licence whatever the resolution specifies as being an activity requiring to be licensed and

(ii) that applications for licences in respect of the activity will be considered by the authority after the expiry of one month after the date of the making of the resolution.

(9) A resolution under this section may be varied or rescinded by a subsequent resolution made in like manner except that, in relation to the time when it takes effect, a resolution under this subsection—

(a) varying a resolution under this section so as to reduce its scope or

(b) rescinding a resolution under this section

shall take effect on such date as may be specified in it being any date subsequent to the making of the resolution.

(10) Anything which must or may be done under or by virtue of Part I or this Part of this Act may, at any time after the making by the licensing authority of the resolution, be done so far as may be necessary or expedient for the purpose of giving full effect to the resolution at or after the time it takes effect but no application for a licence in respect of an activity requiring to be licensed in consequence of the resolution shall be considered by the authority until the expiry of one month after the making of the resolution.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Licensing and regulation of taxis and private hire cars E+W+S

10 Taxi and private hire car licences. S

(1) A licence, to be known as a “taxi licence” or, as the case may be, a “ private hire car licence ”, shall be required for the operation of a vehicle as—

(2) A licensing authority shall not grant or renew a taxi licence or private hire car licence unless they are satisfied that the vehicle to which the licence is to relate is suitable in type, size and design for use as a taxi or private hire car, as the case may be, and is safe for that use, and that there is in force in relation to the vehicle such a policy of insurance or such security as complies with Part VI of the M1Road Traffic Act 1972.

[ F2 (3) Without prejudice to paragraph 5 of Schedule 1 to this Act, the grant of a taxi licence may be refused by a licensing authority for the purpose of limiting the number of taxis in respect of which licences are granted by them if, but only if, they are satisfied that there is no significant demand for the services of taxis in their area which is unmet. ]

(4) A vehicle shall, for the purposes of subsection (2) above, be treated by a licensing authority [ F3 —

(a) ] as being suitable in type, size and design if it complies with regulations in that regard made by the Secretary of State under section 20(2) of this Act in respect of their area [ F4 and

(b) as not being so suitable if it does not so comply. ]

(5) A taxi licence or private hire car licence shall extend to the operation of a vehicle substituted for the vehicle in respect of which the licence was granted or, as the case may be, last renewed if the licensing authority are as respects the substitute vehicle satisfied as to the matters specified in subsection (2) above, and where a taxi licence or private hire car licence extends under this subsection to a substitute vehicle, subsection (6) below shall not apply in respect of the vehicle replaced by the substitute vehicle.

(6) Subject to subsection (5) above, the holder of a taxi or private hire car licence shall within 28 days of his selling or otherwise disposing of the vehicle to which the licence relates deliver to the licensing authority his licence and any licence plate or other thing which has been issued by the licensing authority for the purpose of indicating that the vehicle is a taxi or, as the case may be, private hire car, and if without reasonable excuse he fails to do so he shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F5 level 2 on the standard scale ] .

11 Inspection and testing of vehicles. S

(1) The holder of a taxi or private hire car licence shall present the taxi or private hire car for inspection and testing by or on behalf of the licensing authority within such period and at such place as they may by notice reasonably require.

(2) An authorised officer of a licensing authority (as respects a taxi or private hire car licensed for the area of the authority) [ F6 , an authorised civilian employee ] or a constable shall have power at any reasonable time to inspect and test, for the purpose of ascertaining its fitness, a licensed taxi or private hire car or, for the purpose of testing its fitness or accuracy, any taximeter and if he is not satisfied as to the safety of the taxi or private hire car for the carriage of passengers or as to the fitness or accuracy of the taximeter he may by notice in writing—

(a) require the holder of the taxi or private hire car licence to make the taxi, private hire car or taximeter, as the case may be, available for further inspection at such reasonable time and place as may be specified in the notice

(b) suspend the licence until such time as an authorised officer of the licensing authority [ F7 , an authorised civilian employee ] or a constable is so satisfied:

Provided that, if an authorised officer [ F8 , employee ] or constable is not so satisfied before the expiration of a period of 28 days from the date of the suspension of the licence, the said licence shall, by virtue of this subsection, be deemed to have been suspended by the licensing authority under paragraph 11 of Schedule 1 to this Act.

12 Fees for taxi and private hire car licences. S

A licensing authority shall charge such fees in respect of taxi and private hire car licences and applications for such licences as may be resolved by them from time to time and shall seek to ensure that the total amount of such fees is sufficient to meet the expenses incurred by them in carrying out their functions under sections 10 to 23 (other than section 19) of this Act in relation to such licences.

13 Taxi and private hire car driving licences. S

(1) A licence, to be known as a “taxi driver’s licence” or, as the case may be, a “private hire car driver’s licence”, shall, subject to subsection (2) below, be required for driving or otherwise having charge of a taxi or private hire car.

(2) A private hire car driver’s licence shall not be required by the holder of a taxi driver’s licence for driving or otherwise having charge of a private hire car whilst in operation as such.

(3) A licensing authority shall not grant a licence to any person under this section unless that person has held, [ F9 throughout the period of 12 months immediately ] prior to the date of his application, a licence authorising him to drive a motor car issued under Part III of the M2Road Traffic Act 1972 or a licence which would at the time of his application entitle him to such a licence without taking a test, not being a provisional licence.

(4) A licensing authority may, at any time, for the purposes of satisfying themselves that he is physically fit to drive a taxi or, as the case may be, private hire car, require an applicant for or holder of a taxi driver’s licence or private hire car driver’s licence to submit to medical examination, at their expense, by a medical practitioner nominated by them.

(5) A licensing authority may require an applicant for a taxi driver’s licence to take a test of his knowledge of the area to which the licence is to relate, of the layout of roads in that area and such other matters relating to the operation of a taxi as the authority consider desirable, and the authority may refuse to grant a licence to a person who does not satisfy them that he has adequate knowledge of any of these matters.

(6) If a person holding a licence under this section ceases for any reason to be authorised by law to drive on a road . . . F10 the vehicle to which the licence relates, the licence shall cease to have effect.

14 Signs on vehicles other than taxis. S

(1) Subject to subsection (2) below, there shall not be displayed on or in a private hire car any word, sign, notice, mark, illumination or other feature which may suggest that the vehicle is available for hire as a taxi.

(2) Subsection (1) above does not apply in relation to any licence plate or other thing issued by the licensing authority for the purpose of indicating that the vehicle to which it relates is a private hire car or in relation to any sign required by virtue of section 21 of the M3Vehicles (Excise) Act 1971.

(a) drives a vehicle in respect of which subsection (1) is contravened or

(b) causes or knowingly permits that subsection to be contravened in respect of any vehicle,

shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F11 level 3 on the standard scale ] .

15 Operation of taxis outside licensing areas. S

(1) A licensing authority, with the agreement of another licensing authority, may name destinations or classes of destinations in the area of the other authority and, with the agreement aforesaid, fix scales under section 17 of this Act for journeys from their area by taxis licensed by them to such destinations or classes thereof.

(2) The conditions to which a taxi or taxi driver’s licence are subject shall continue to apply while the taxi or its driver is engaged in such a journey.

(3) Nothing in this section or in Part I of this Act enables a condition to be imposed in a taxi driver’s licence requiring him to make any journey to a destination outside the area in respect of which he is licensed.

16 Journeys in England and Wales by vehicles and drivers licensed under this Act. E+W+S

In section 75 of the M4 Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1976 (saving for certain vehicles from requirements of Part II of that Act as to private hire vehicles), after subsection (2) there shall be inserted—

“ (2A) Where a vehicle is being used as a taxi or private hire car, paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of section 46(1) of this Act shall not apply to the use or driving of the vehicle or the employment of a person to drive it if—

(a) a licence issued under section 10 of the Civic Government (Scotland) Act 1982 for its use as a taxi or, as the case may be, private hire car is then in force, and

(b) the driver holds a licence issued under section 13 of that Act for the driving of taxis or, as the case may be, private hire cars.

In this subsection, “ private hire car ” and “ taxi ” have the same meaning as in sections 10 to 22 of the Civic Government (Scotland) Act 1982 ”

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C3 The text of ss. 16, 18(11), 51(7) and 52(6) is in the form in which it was originally enacted: it was not reproduced in Statutes in Force and does not reflect any amendments or repeals which may have been made prior to 1.2.1991.

17 Taxi fares. S

(1) The fares for the hire of taxis in any area and all other charges in connection with the hire of a taxi or with the arrangements for its hire shall be not greater than those fixed for that area under this section and section 18 of this Act.

[ F12 (2) The licensing authority must fix scales for the fares and other charges mentioned in subsection (1) within 18 months beginning with the date on which the scales came into effect.

(3) In fixing scales under subsection (2), the licensing authority may—

(a) alter fares or other charges,

(b) fix fares or other charges at the same rates.

(4) Before fixing scales under subsection (2), the licensing authority must review the scales in accordance with subsection (4A).

(4A) In carrying out a review, the licensing authority must—

(a) consult with persons or organisations appearing to it to be, or to be representative of, the operators of taxis operating within its area,

(b) following such consultation—

(i) review the existing scales, and

(ii) propose new scales (whether at altered rates or the same rates),

(c) publish those proposed scales in a newspaper circulating in its area—

(i) setting out the proposed scales,

(ii) explaining the effect of the proposed scales,

(iii) proposing a date on which the proposed scales are to come into effect, and

(iv) stating that any person may make representations in writing until the relevant date, and

(d) consider any such representations.

(4B) In subsection (4A)(c)(iv) “the relevant date” is a date specified by the licensing authority falling at least one month after the first publication by the authority of the proposed scales.

(4C) After fixing scales under subsection (2), the licensing authority must give notice in accordance with subsection (4D).

(4D) The licensing authority must—

(a) set out, and explain the effect of, the scales as fixed,

(b) notify the persons mentioned in subsection (4E) of—

(i) the date on which the scales as fixed are to come into effect, and

(ii) the rights of appeal under section 18.

(a) all operators of taxis operating within their area, and

(b) the persons and organisations consulted under subsection (4A)(a). ]

(5) Notice shall be given for the purposes of subsection [ F13 (4D)(b) ] above by—

(a) its being sent by recorded delivery letter to the last known addresses of the persons and organisations referred to in subsection [ F14 (4E) ] above so as to arrive there, in the normal course of post, not later than [ F15 seven days after the scales are fixed under subsection (2) ] above or

(b) personal service of the notice upon those persons within that time.

18 Appeals in respect of taxi fares. S

[ F16 (1) Any person mentioned in subsection (1A) may, within 14 days of notice being given under section 17(4C), appeal against those scales to the traffic commissioner for the Scottish Traffic Area as constituted for the purpose of the Public Passenger Vehicles Act 1981. ]

(a) any person who operates a taxi in an area for which scales have been fixed under section 17(2), and

(b) any person or organisation appearing to the traffic commissioner to be representative of such taxi operators. ]

(2) The traffic [ F18 commissioner ] may hear an appeal under this section notwithstanding that it was not lodged with [ F19 him ] within the time mentioned in subsection (1) above.

(3) On an appeal F20. under subsection (1) above, the traffic [ F18 commissioner ] may—

(a) confirm or alter the scales or

(i) at any stage in the appeal, [ F22 if ] [ F23 he considers ] the case for the appellant is not representative of the view of a substantial proportion of the operators of taxis operating in the area of the licensing authority

(ii) if less than two years have elapsed since [ F23 he decided ] an appeal against a decision of the same authority in respect of the same scale, and [ F23 he considers ] it inappropriate that [ F23 he should consider ] the matter again.

(4) An appeal under this section shall have the effect of suspending the decision referred to in subsection (1) above until the date when the appeal is abandoned or, as the case may be, when notice is given to the appellant advising him of its disposal.

(5) Where [ F24 he alters ] scales under subsection (3)(a) above, the traffic [ F18 commissioner ] may substitute a different date for the coming into effect of these scales.

(6) The Secretary of State may [ F25 by order made by statutory instrument ] make rules as to procedure in relation to appeals under this section.

(7) The decision of the traffic [ F18 commissioner ] on an appeal under this section shall be final.

(8) The traffic [ F18 commissioner ] shall give notice of [ F26 his ] decision in writing to the appellant and to the licensing authority and notice shall be given to the appellant by—

(a) its being sent by recorded delivery letter to his last known address or, as the case may be, to them so as to arrive, in the normal course of post, not later than five days after [ F26 his ] decision or

(b) personal service of the notice on the appellant within that time.

(10) A licensing authority shall pay the expenses incurred under this section by the traffic commissioners in relation to appeals under this section.

[ F29 18A Publication and coming into effect of taxi fares E+W+S

(1) Following the fixing of scales by a licensing authority under section 17(2), the licensing authority must—

(a) determine the date on which the scales are to come into effect, and

(b) publish the scales in accordance with subsections (3) to (5).

(2) The scales may come into effect no earlier than seven days after the date on which they are published.

(3) The licensing authority must—

(a) give notice of the scales by advertisement in a newspaper circulating in its area, and

(b) specify in that advertisement the date on which the scales are to come into effect.

(4) The authority must give notice of the scales—

(a) where no appeal has been lodged under subsection (1) of section 18, as soon as practicable after the expiry of the period of 14 days mentioned in that subsection,

(b) where such an appeal has been lodged, as soon as practicable after the determination of the appeal.

(5) For the purposes of subsection (4), an appeal is determined on the date on which the appeal is abandoned or notice is given to the appellant of its disposal. ]

19 Taxi stances. S

(1) A licensing authority may, after consultation with persons or organisations appearing to them to be, or be representative of, the operators of taxis operating in their area, appoint stances for taxis for the whole or any part of a day in any road within their area or on any land owned by the authority, or, with the consent of the owner, on any land owned by him.

(2) A licensing authority may—

(a) erect and illuminate signs

(b) cause lines or marks to be made on roads

indicating the limits of taxi stances.

(3) A licensing authority may from time to time, after consultation as mentioned in subsection (1) above, vary the number of taxis permitted to be at each stance and alter the position of such stances or revoke the appointment thereof.

(4) Before appointing any stance for taxis or varying the number of taxis permitted to be at each stance, the licensing authority shall give notice to the chief constable of the area in which the stance is situated and shall also give public notice of the proposal by advertisement in at least one newspaper circulating in their area and shall take into consideration any objections or representations in respect of such proposal which may be made to them in writing within 28 days of the first publication of such notice.

(5) Nothing in this section shall empower a licensing authority to appoint any taxi stance so as unreasonably to prevent access to any premises or, without the consent of the [ F30 roads authority ] , to appoint any taxi stance on any [ F31 road ] or erect or illuminate any sign there or cause any line or mark to be made on any road . . . F32

20 Regulations relating to taxis and private hire cars and their drivers. S

(1) Notwithstanding paragraph 5(2) of Schedule 1 to this Act, the Secretary of State may by regulations provide that licensing authorities shall, in relation to taxi, private hire car, taxi drivers’ or private hire car drivers’ licences, impose such conditions or classes of conditions as may be prescribed in the regulations and shall not impose such other conditions or classes of conditions as may be so prescribed [ F33 and may provide that such conditions shall be imposed or, as the case may be, shall not be imposed for different areas or classes of areas and different conditions or classes of conditions may be prescribed in relation to different categories of taxi or private hire car. ]

(2) The Secretary of State may by regulations F34. prescribe types, sizes and designs of vehicles for the purposes of section 10(4) of this Act and, in doing so, may prescribe different types, sizes or designs of vehicles in respect of different areas.

[ F35 (2A) Without prejudice to the generality of subsections (1) and (2) above, regulations under those subsections may make such provision as appears to the Secretary of State to be necessary or expedient in relation to the carrying in taxis of disabled persons (within the meaning of [ F36 section 6 of the Equality Act 2010 ] ) and such provision may in particular prescribe—

(a) requirements as to the carriage of wheelchairs, guide dogs, hearing dogs and other categories of dog

(b) a date from which any such provision is to apply and the extent to which it is to apply and

(c) the circumstances in which an exemption from such provision may be granted in respect of any taxi or taxi driver,

“ guide dog ” means a dog which has been trained to guide a blind person

“ hearing dog ” means a dog which has been trained to assist a deaf person and

“ other categories of dog ” means such other categories of dog as the Secretary of State may prescribe, trained to assist disabled persons who have disabilities of such kinds as he may prescribe. ]

[ F37 (2AA) The Scottish Ministers may by regulations make such provision as appears to them to be necessary or expedient in relation to the carrying in private hire cars of disabled persons (within the meaning of [ F38 section 6 of the Equality Act 2010 ] ) and such provision may in particular prescribe—

(a) requirements as to the carriage of guide dogs, hearing dogs and other categories of dogs

(b) a date from which any such provision is to apply and the extent to which it is to apply and

(c) the circumstances in which an exemption from such provision may be granted in respect of any private hire car or private hire car driver,

and in this subsection “ guide dog ”, “ hearing dog ” and “ other categories of dog ” have the same meaning as in subsection (2A) above.

(2AB) Regulations under subsection (2AA) above may provide for the creation of offences and for making offenders liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(2AC) Regulations under subsection (2AA) above shall be made by statutory instrument subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of the Scottish Parliament. ]

(3) Regulations under [ F39 subsection (1) or (2) above ] shall be made by statutory instrument subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

21 Offences. S

(a) operates, or permits the operation of, a taxi within an area in respect of which its operation requires to be but is not licensed or the driver requires to be but is not licensed, or

(b) picks up passengers in, or permits passengers to be picked up by, a private hire car within an area in respect of which its operation requires to be but is not licensed or the driver requires to be but is not licensed,

that person shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F40 level 4 on the standard scale ] .

(2) Subsection (1) above does not apply to the operation of a taxi or private hire car within an area in respect of which its operation or its driver is not licensed if the request for its hiring was received by its driver [ F41 (otherwise than in a public place from the person to be conveyed in it, or a person acting on his behalf, for a journey beginning there and then) ] whilst—

(a) in the area or in that part thereof in respect of which its operation and its driver are licensed

(b) engaged on hire on a journey which began in that area or part or will end there or

(c) returning to that area or part immediately following completion of a journey on hire.

(3) Subsection (1)(b) above does not apply to the operation of a vehicle within an area in respect of which its operation or its driver is not licensed if there are in force—

(i) in respect of the vehicle, a licence under section 37 of the M5Town Police Clauses Act 1847 (licensing of hackney carriages) or section 48 of the M6Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1976 (licensing of private hire vehicles) and

(ii) in respect of its driver, a licence under section 46 of the said Act of 1847 (licensing of hackney carriage drivers) or, as the case may be, section 51 of the said Act of 1976 (licensing of drivers of private hire vehicles).

[ F42 (3A) Subsection (1)(b) above does not apply to the operation of a vehicle within an area in respect of which its operation or its driver is not licensed if there are in force—

(a) in respect of the vehicle, a licence under section 7 of the Private Hire Vehicles (London) Act 1998 and

(b) in respect of its driver, a licence under section 13 of that Act. ]

(4) If any person, being the holder of a taxi licence or private hire car licence in respect of a vehicle, permits another person who does not have a current taxi driver’s licence or private hire car driver’s licence, as the case may be, to operate the vehicle as a taxi or, as the case may be, a private hire car he shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F40 level 4 on the standard scale ] .

(5) If any person demands fares or other charges in respect of the hire of a taxi or for the hire of a private hire car which is fitted with a taximeter in excess of the scales established under sections 17 and 18 of this Act, he shall be guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F40 level 4 on the standard scale ] .

(6) If any person without good cause breaks the seal on a taximeter or operates or drives a taxi or private hire car knowing that the seal on its meter has been broken, he shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F40 level 4 on the standard scale ] or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 60 days or to both.

(7) If any person, without reasonable excuse, causes or permits any vehicle other than a taxi to wait on any stance for taxis during any period for which that stance has been appointed by a licensing authority under section 19 of this Act, he shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F40 level 2 on the standard scale ] .

(8) Notice of the effect of subsection (7) above shall be indicated by such traffic signs as may be prescribed as authorised for the purpose by the Secretary of State in pursuance of his powers under section 54 of the M7Road Traffic Regulation Act 1967.

22 Saving for certain vehicles etc. S

Nothing in sections 10 to 21 (with the exception of subsection (7) of section 21) of this Act shall—

(a) apply to a vehicle used for bringing passengers or goods within and taking them out of an area in respect of which the vehicle is not licensed as a taxi or a private hire car in pursuance of a contract for the hire of the vehicle made outside the area if the vehicle is not made available for hire within the area

(b) apply to a vehicle while it is being used in connection with a funeral or wedding

(c) apply to any vehicle while it is being used for carrying passengers under a contract for its exclusive hire for a period of not less than 24 hours.

23 Interpretation of sections 10 to 22. S

(1) In sections 10 to 22 of this Act—

“ taxi ” means a hire car which is engaged, by arrangements made in a public place between the person to be conveyed in it (or a person acting on his behalf) and its driver for a journey beginning there and then and

“ private hire car ” means a hire car other than a taxi within the meaning of this subsection.

(2) In subsection (1) above, “ hire car ” means a motor vehicle with a driver (other than a vehicle being a public service vehicle within the meaning of section 1(1)(a) of the M8Public Passenger Vehicles Act 1981) which is, with a view to profit, available for hire by the public for personal conveyance.

(3) Notwithstanding that a vehicle in respect of which there is a licence for its operation as a taxi is, on any occasion, engaged as a hire car otherwise than in the manner referred to in subsection (1) above, the enactments relating to its operation as a taxi, and to the driving of it as such (including any such enactments in this Act) shall nonetheless apply in relation to it and that other manner of engagement on that occasion shall not of itself cause the operation or driving of the licensed taxi to be regarded for the purposes of this Act as the operation or driving of a private hire car within the meaning of subsection (1) above.

Licensing and regulation of second-hand dealers S

24 Second-hand dealers’ licences. S

(1) Subject to subsection (3) below, a licence, to be known as a “ second-hand dealer’s licence ”, shall be required for carrying on business as a second-hand dealer.

(2) In this section and in sections 25 to 27 and 36 of this Act “ second-hand dealer ” means a person carrying on a business as a dealer in second-hand goods or articles of any description.

(3) A second-hand dealer’s licence shall not be required for carrying on—

(a) the business of a pawnbroker (that is to say, a person who, under a regulated agreement under the M9Consumer Credit Act 1974, takes an article in pawn)

(b) a business as a wholesale dealer purchasing exclusively from second-hand dealers licensed under this Act

[ F43 (c) the business of a charity (that is to say, a body which is entered in the Scottish Charity Register) ]

(d) a business as a dealer in second-hand goods or articles incidentally to another business not being that of a dealer in such goods or articles

(e) a business either of financing the acquisition of goods by means of hire-purchase agreements, conditional sale agreements or credit sale agreements (as defined in section 189(1) of the M10Consumer Credit Act 1974) or of financing the use of goods by means of hiring agreements.

(4) Without prejudice to paragraph 5 of Schedule 1 to this Act, a licensing authority may, after consultation with the chief constable, attach conditions to a second-hand dealer’s licence requiring the keeping of records in relation to the dealer’s stock-in-trade and conditions so attached may, without prejudice to the authority’s power under this subsection, include provision as to—

(a) the information to be included in these records

(c) the premises where they are to be kept and

(d) the period for which they are to be kept.

(5) A second-hand dealer acquiring a second-hand motor vehicle for the purpose of its re-sale in the course of his business shall keep a record of the mileage reading on the vehicle’s odometer when he acquired it.

(6) Any person who contravenes subsection (5) above shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F44 level 3 on the standard scale ] .

(7) It shall be a defence for a person charged with an offence under subsection (6) above to prove that he used all due diligence to prevent the commission of the offence.

25 Disposal of stock-in-trade. S

(1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3) below and section 27 of this Act, a second-hand dealer shall not dispose of any item of his stock-in-trade until the expiry of 48 hours (excluding any time on Saturdays or Sundays) after he acquired it.

(2) Subsection (1) above shall not apply to any article acquired by the dealer in a public roup and disposed of by him without being brought to his place of business.

(3) A licensing authority may, on granting a second-hand dealer’s licence or at any time thereafter, on application by the dealer and after consultation with the chief constable, order that subsection (1) above shall not apply to the disposal by the dealer of any item, or any specified item or class of items, of his stock-in-trade or any specified part of it.

(4) An order under subsection (3) above may—

(a) be made subject to such conditions as the authority think fit

(b) relate to stock-in-trade or items thereof still to be acquired by the dealer to whom the order relates or

(c) be varied or revoked at any time by the licensing authority.

(5) In subsection (3) above, “ specified ” means specified in an order under that subsection.

(6) A holder of a second-hand dealer’s licence may appeal to the sheriff against a decision of the licensing authority under this section and paragraph 24(3) to (9) and (11) and (12) of Schedule 1 to this Act shall, with any necessary modifications, apply to an appeal under this subsection.

(7) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) above shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F45 level 3 on the standard scale ] .

26 Sellers of second-hand goods: offences etc. S

(1) Any person who, when selling anything to a second-hand dealer, gives the dealer a false name or address shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F46 level 3 on the standard scale ] .

(2) If anything is offered to a second-hand dealer in the course of his business and he has reason to believe that it has been stolen or otherwise unlawfully obtained he may, subject to subsection (3) below, detain the person offering it and a constable may arrest that person and take possession of it.

(3) Nothing in subsection (2) above authorises a second-hand dealer to detain a person longer than is reasonably necessary for obtaining the attendance of a constable.

(4) No civil liability shall arise as a result only of the detention in good faith of a person under subsection (2) above.

27 Functions of the court in relation to second-hand dealers convicted of offences. S

(1) Where a second-hand dealer is convicted of an offence relating to second-hand dealing, the court by which he is convicted may make any order which it is competent to make under section 7(6) of this Act and an extract of such conviction and sentence (if any) shall, within 6 days after the date of the conviction, be transmitted by the clerk of the court to the licensing authority which granted the licence.

(2) Where a second-hand dealer is convicted—

(a) of an offence relating to second-hand dealing or

(b) of an offence which in the opinion of the court is an offence involving dishonesty,

the court may, in addition to any other order which it is competent to make, order that he shall not dispose of any second-hand goods acquired by him until the expiry of a period of 7 days after their acquisition.

(3) In making an order under subsection (2) above, the court shall specify a period not exceeding 2 years for which it is to remain in force, but the court may revoke such an order at any time on the application of the person to whom it relates.

(4) Any person who fails to comply with an order made in relation to him under subsection (2) above shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F47 level 4 on the standard scale ] or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 60 days or to both.

[ F48 Licensing and regulation of knife dealers E+W+S

F48 Ss. 27A-27S and cross-heading inserted (1.11.2007 for specified purposes, 1.6.2009 for specified purposes, 1.9.2009 for specififed purposes, 1.6.2010 in so far as not already in force) by Custodial Sentences and Weapons (Scotland) Act 2007 (asp 17), ss. 58, 67(2) S.S.I. 2007/431, art. 3, sch., S.S.I. 2009/197, art. 2, Sch.

27A Knife dealers' licences E+W+S

(1) A licence, to be known as a “knife dealer's licence”, is required for carrying on business as a dealer in any article mentioned in subsection (2).

(a) knives (other than [ F49 folding pocket knives whose blades do not exceed 3.5 inches (8.91 centimetres) in length or knives ] designed for domestic use)

[ F50 (aa) daggers (other than kirpans or skean dhus whose blades do not exceed exceed 3.5 inches (8.91 centimetres) in length) ]

(b) knife blades (other than those designed for domestic use)

(ii) which is sharply pointed,

and which is made or adapted for use for causing injury to the person.

(3) A knife dealer's licence shall, in addition to specifying the activity which the dealer engages in, specify the premises in or from which the activity is to be carried on.

(4) In subsections (1) and (3), “ dealer ” means a person carrying on a business which consists wholly or partly of—

(c) offering for sale or hire

(d) exposing for sale or hire

to persons not acting in the course of a business or profession any article mentioned in subsection (2) (whether or not the activities mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (f) are carried out incidentally to a business which would not, apart from this section, require a knife dealer's licence).

(5) In subsection (4), “ selling ”, in relation to an article mentioned in subsection (2)—

(i) selling such an article by auction

(ii) accepting goods or services in payment (whether in part or in full) for such an article but

(b) does not include selling (by auction or otherwise) such an article by one person on behalf of another

and “ sale ” is to be construed accordingly.

(6) For the purposes of subsection (4), an article is not to be treated as being exposed for sale if it is exposed for sale (by auction or otherwise) by a person other than the owner.

(7) The Scottish Ministers may by order modify subsection (2) so as to—

(a) add articles or classes of article

(b) amend descriptions of articles or classes of article

(c) remove articles or classes of article.

(8) The Scottish Ministers may by order—

(a) modify subsection (4) so as to modify the definition of “dealer”

(b) specify descriptions of activity which are not to be taken to be businesses for the purposes of that subsection (or that subsection as modified).

(9) The power in subsection (8)(a) includes in particular power to add descriptions of business.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

27B Applications for knife dealers' licences: notice E+W+S

(1) A licensing authority must cause public notice to be given of every application made to them for the grant or renewal of a knife dealer's licence.

(2) Sub-paragraph (8) of paragraph 2 of Schedule 1 applies to the giving of public notice under subsection (1) as it applies to the giving of public notice under sub-paragraph (7) of that paragraph.

27C Knife dealers' licences: conditions E+W+S

(1) In granting or renewing a knife dealer's licence, a licensing authority—

(a) must attach to the licence such conditions as are specified (in particular or in general) by order by the Scottish Ministers

(b) may, without prejudice to [ F51 section 3B and ] paragraph 5 of Schedule 1, attach to the licence different conditions in relation to different articles or different classes of article

(c) may, without prejudice to that [ F52 section and ] paragraph, attach to the licence conditions for or in connection with—

(i) the keeping of records by the holder of the licence

(ii) the storage of articles mentioned in section 27A(2) and

(iii) the display of such articles.

(2) An order under subsection (1)(a) may provide for different conditions to apply to different articles or different classes of article.

27D Provision of information to holder of knife dealer's licence E+W+S

(1) Subsection (2) applies where the holder of a knife dealer's licence (“the dealer”)—

(a) is required by the licence to obtain information of a type specified in the licence from a person and

(b) the dealer requests (whether orally, in writing or otherwise) the information from the person.

(2) A person, or any person acting on behalf of the person, who knowingly or recklessly provides false information in response to a request under subsection (1)(b) is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

27E Knife dealers' licences: warrants to enter, search and seize articles E+W+S

(1) Subsection (2) applies if a justice of the peace or sheriff is satisfied by evidence on oath that—

(a) subsection (3) applies and

(b) subsection (4) or (5) applies.

(2) The justice of the peace or sheriff may grant a warrant authorising a constable or an authorised officer—

(a) to enter and search the premises specified in the warrant and

(b) to seize and remove any relevant article.

(3) This subsection applies if there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that a person (the “suspect”) is carrying on in any premises an activity in respect of which a knife dealer's licence is required under section 27A.

(4) This subsection applies if no knife dealer's licence is in force in respect of the activity.

(5) This subsection applies if a knife dealer's licence is in force in respect of the activity but there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that the suspect has failed, or is failing, to comply with a condition of the licence.

27F Powers of constables and authorised officers E+W+S

(1) A constable or an authorised officer may use reasonable force in executing a warrant granted under section 27E(2).

(2) Where a constable who is not in uniform is about to enter, is entering or has entered any premises under the powers conferred under section 27E(2) he must, if required to do so by a person in or upon the premises, produce his identification.

(3) Where an authorised officer is about to enter, is entering or has entered any premises under the powers conferred under section 27E(2) he must, if required to do so by a person in or upon the premises, produce his authorisation.

(4) If a constable has been required to produce his identification under subsection (2) he is not entitled to enter or search the premises or, as the case may be, remain there or continue to search the premises until he has produced it.

(5) If an authorised officer has been required to produce his authority under subsection (3), he is not entitled to enter or search the premises or, as the case may be, remain there or continue to search the premises until he has produced it.

(a) fails without reasonable excuse to permit a constable, or an authorised officer, acting in pursuance of a warrant granted under section 27E(2) to enter and search any premises or

(b) obstructs the entry to, or search of, any premises by a constable or an authorised officer so acting,

is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(7) Any relevant article which has been seized and removed under a warrant granted under section 27E(2) may be retained until the conclusion of proceedings against the suspect.

(8) For the purposes of subsection (7), proceedings in relation to a suspect are concluded if—

(a) he is found guilty and sentenced or otherwise dealt with for the offence

(c) proceedings for the offence are discontinued

(d) it is decided not to prosecute him.

(9) In this section, “ suspect ” is to be construed in accordance with section 27E(3).

27G Power to inspect documents E+W+S

(1) Subsection (2) applies where—

(a) a constable or an authorised officer has reasonable grounds for suspecting that an activity in respect of which a knife dealer's licence is required under section 27A is being carried on and

(b) no such licence is in force in respect of the activity.

(2) The constable or authorised officer may—

(a) require a relevant person to produce any records or other documents connected with the activity,

(b) inspect any such records or documents, and

(c) take copies of, or extracts from, any such records or documents.

(a) is required under subsection (2) to produce records or documents and

(b) fails without reasonable excuse to do so,

is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(4) Before exercising the power conferred by subsection (2)—

(a) a constable who is not in uniform must produce his identification to the relevant person

(b) an authorised officer must produce his authorisation to the relevant person.

(5) For the purposes of this section, a person is “relevant” if the constable or authorised officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the person has access to the records or documents.

27H Sections 27E to 27G: interpretation E+W+S

(1) In sections 27E and 27F—

“ premises ” includes a vehicle or vessel

“ relevant article ” means an article mentioned in any of paragraphs (a) to (d) of subsection (2) of section 27A.

(2) In sections 27E to 27G, “ authorised officer ” means an officer of a licensing authority authorised by the authority for the purposes of section 27E, 27F or, as the case may be, 27G.

27J Forfeiture orders E+W+S

(1) Subsection (2) applies where a person (“the offender”) is convicted of an offence under subsection (A1) or (2) of section 7 in relation to a relevant article—

(a) seized by virtue of a warrant granted under section 27E(2) or

(b) in the offender's possession or control at the relevant time.

(2) The court by which the offender is convicted may make an order for forfeiture (a “forfeiture order”) in respect of the relevant article.

(3) The court may make a forfeiture order—

(a) whether or not it also deals with the offender in respect of the offence in any other way and

(b) without regard to any restrictions on forfeiture in any enactment.

(4) In considering whether to make a forfeiture order, the court must have regard to—

(a) the value of the relevant article and

(b) the likely financial and other effects on the offender of the making of the order (taken together with any other order that the court contemplates making).

“ relevant article ” means an article mentioned in any of paragraphs (a) to (d) of subsection (2) of section 27A

the time of the offender's arrest for the offence or

the time of his being cited as an accused in respect of the offence.

27K Effect of forfeiture order E+W+S

(1) A forfeiture order under section 27J(2) operates to deprive the offender of any rights he has in the property to which it relates.

(2) The property to which a forfeiture order relates must be taken into the possession of the police.

(3) The court by which the offender is convicted may, on the application of a person who—

(a) claims property to which a forfeiture order relates but

(b) is not the offender from whom it was forfeited,

make an order (a “recovery order”) for delivery of the property to the applicant if it appears to the court that he owns it.

(4) An application under subsection (3) must be made—

(a) in such manner as may be prescribed by Act of Adjournal and

(b) before the end of the period of 6 months beginning with the date on which the forfeiture order was made.

(5) An application may be granted only if the applicant satisfies the court that—

(a) he had not consented to the offender's having possession of the property or

(b) he did not know, and had no reason to suspect, that the offence was likely to be committed.

(6) If a person has a right to recover property which, by virtue of a recovery order, is in the possession of another, that right—

(a) is not affected by the making of the recovery order at any time before the end of the period of 6 months beginning with the day on which the order is made

(b) is lost at the end of that period.

(7) The Scottish Ministers may by order make provision for or in connection with the disposal of property forfeited under a forfeiture order in cases where—

(a) no application under subsection (3) has been made before the end of the 6 month period beginning with the day on which the forfeiture order was made or

(b) no such application has succeeded.

(8) An order under subsection (7) may in particular make provision for—

(a) dealing with any proceeds from the disposal

27L Offences by partnerships E+W+S

Where an offence committed by a partnership under—

(a) section 5 (in so far as the offence relates to a knife dealer's licence)

(b) section 7 (in so far as the offence so relates)

is proved to have been committed with the consent or connivance of, or to be attributable to any neglect on the part of, a partner, the partner as well as the partnership is guilty of the offence and is liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

27M Appropriate licence required E+W+S

Where a person carries on a business which—

(a) by virtue of section 24 requires a second-hand dealer's licence and

(b) by virtue of section 27A requires a knife dealer's licence,

the person requires the appropriate licence in respect of each activity.

27N Remote sales of knives etc. E+W+S

(1) This section applies where, in connection with the sale of an article mentioned in section 27A(2)—

(a) the premises (the “relevant premises”) from which the article is dispatched in pursuance of the sale are not the same as those where the order for the article is taken (the “sale premises”),

(b) the relevant premises are in Scotland, and

(c) the sale premises are not in Scotland.

(2) For the purposes of this Act the sale of the article is to be treated as taking place on the relevant premises.

27P Sales and dispatches in different local authority areas E+W+S

(1) Subsection (2) applies where, in connection with the sale of an article mentioned in section 27A(2)—

(a) the relevant premises are situated in the area of a local authority, and

(b) the sale premises are situated in the area of another local authority which, by virtue of section 2(2), is the licensing authority in respect of the taking of the order for the article.

(2) For the purposes of this Act, the sale of the article is to be treated as taking place—

(a) on the relevant premises, and

(3) In this section, “ relevant premises ” and “ sale premises ” have the same meanings as in section 27N.

27Q Duty to avoid conflict between conditions of licences E+W+S

(1) Subsection (2) applies where an application is made to a licensing authority for the grant or renewal of a second-hand dealer's licence by the holder of a knife dealer's licence issued by that authority.

(2) In granting the application, the licensing authority must not impose any condition which conflicts, or is inconsistent, with a condition of the knife dealer's licence.

(3) Subsection (4) applies where an application is made to a licensing authority for the grant or renewal of a knife dealer's licence by the holder of a second-hand dealer's licence issued by that authority.

(4) In granting the application, the licensing authority must, in accordance with paragraph 10 of Schedule 1, vary the terms and conditions of the second-hand dealer's licence to avoid any conflict or inconsistency with the terms or conditions of the knife-dealer's licence.

27R Offences in relation to knife dealers' licences: exceptions E+W+S

The Scottish Ministers may by order provide that an offence under—

(a) section 5 (in so far as the offence relates to a knife dealer's licence)

(b) section 7 (in so far as the offence so relates)

is subject to such exceptions as may be specified in the order.

27S Orders under sections 27A to 27R E+W+S

(1) Any power conferred by section 27A(7), 27A(8), 27C(1)(a), 27K(7) or 27R to make orders is exercisable by statutory instrument.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), a statutory instrument containing an order under any of those sections is subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of the Scottish Parliament.

(3) A statutory instrument containing an order under section 27R may not be made unless a draft of the instrument has been laid before, and approved by resolution of, the Scottish Parliament. ]

Licensing and regulation of metal dealers S

28 Metal dealers: licensing and regulation. S

(1) Subject to subsection (2) below, a licence, to be known as a “ metal dealer’s licence ”, shall be required for carrying on business as a metal dealer.

(2) A metal dealer’s licence shall not be required by a person in relation to whom there is in force a warrant under section 29(1) or (4) of this Act (referred to in subsection (3) below and in sections 30 to 37 of this Act respectively as “ an exemption warrant ” and “a temporary exemption warrant”).

(3) Sections 30 to 36 of this Act shall not apply to a person in relation to whom an exemption warrant or temporary exemption warrant is in force.

(4) A metal dealer’s licence shall, in addition to specifying the activity which he engages in, specify the premises in or from which the activity is to be carried on.

29 Metal dealers’ exemption warrants. S

(1) A licensing authority shall, on application by a metal dealer, issue an exemption warrant in relation to him if there is produced to them a certificate by the auditor of the metal dealer’s business stating that, in a financial year ending in the period of 18 months immediately preceding the production to them of the certificate, the total amount received by the dealer as a principal in the ordinary course of his business in respect of metal sold or supplied by him, without any deduction being made, exceeded £100,000 or such other sum as may be substituted for that sum by order made by the Secretary of State.

(2) An order made for the purposes of subsection (1) above shall be made by statutory instrument subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(3) An exemption warrant shall remain in force for 3 years from the date of its issue.

(4) A licensing authority may, on application by a metal dealer, issue a temporary exemption warrant in relation to him if they are satisfied that he has not been carrying on business as a metal dealer.

(5) A temporary exemption warrant in relation to a metal dealer shall remain in force from the date of its issue or such later date as the licensing authority may specify—

(a) for a period of 18 months or

(b) until (if earlier that the expiry of that period) the date of the grant to that dealer of an exemption warrant or

(c) if a metal dealer’s licence has been applied for by him within that period, until the date when it is granted or is deemed to have been granted or, if it is refused, until the expiry of the time within which he may lodge an appeal under paragraph 18 of Schedule 1 to this Act against that refusal or, where he has lodged such an appeal, until it has been abandoned or determined against him.

(6) It shall be a condition of a temporary exemption warrant that the dealer to whom it relates shall acquire metal only from persons selling or otherwise disposing of it in the course of trade or business.

(7) A licensing authority may revoke a temporary exemption warrant on the grounds that the metal dealer to whom it relates has contravened the condition specified in subsection (6) above.

(8) An authorised officer of a licensing authority or a constable may require any person who the officer or constable has reasonable ground to believe is carrying on business as a metal dealer without having a metal dealer’s licence to produce his exemption warrant or temporary exemption warrant within a reasonable time of being required to do so and any person who does not have a metal dealer’s licence and who, having been so required to produce his exemption warrant or temporary exemption warrant within that time, fails, without reasonable excuse, to do so shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [ F53 level 1 on the standard scale ] .

(9) An officer of a licensing authority or a constable who is not in uniform shall not be entitled to exercise the powers which he may exercise under subsection (8) above until he has produced his authorisation or, as the case may be, identification to the person in respect of whom they are to be exercised.

“ auditor ” means a person who is [ F54 eligible for appointment as a statutory auditor under Part 42 of the Companies Act 2006 ] and

“ financial year ”, in relation to a metal dealer, means the financial year of his business or, if it has no financial year, the year beginning on 6th April.


Watch the video: Decimals#Standard-5# (October 2021).